Appendix A

A Review of Fourier Techniques

A.1 Signals, Spectra, and Linear Systems

Electrical communication signals consist of time-varying voltage or current waveforms, typically described in the time domain. It is also convenient to describe such signals in the frequency domain. A signal’s frequency-domain description is called its spectrum. Spectral concepts are important in communication analysis and design; they can describe a signal by its average power or energy content at various frequencies, and they illustrate how much of the electromagnetic spectrum (bandwidth) the signal occupies. Broadcast stations are required by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate at their assigned frequency with very tight tolerances on the ...

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