Integrated chips (IC) form an integral part of digital devices. The ICs are made up number of logic gates apart from other components. The usage of AND and OR gates cause difficulties and complicates the circuitry. Thus, the methods to reduce the number of logic gates that are employed in a circuit have to be evolved and considered. One such method is implementation of logic expressions using NAND and NOR gates. NAND and NOR can perform functions of all other logic gates and are hence termed as universal gates. We shall deal with implementation of NAND gates first followed by NOR gate in this chapter.


NAND gate is a universal building block. Since we have already dealt with the NAND gate elaborately, ...

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