Integrated circuits were invented by Jack Kilby in 1958 forming the genesis of almost every electronic product used today. From cell phones, to modems, to Internet audio players and many more, the chip has revolutionized the electronic world and enabled an entire industry to grow. An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit also abbreviated as IC. A chip, or microchip is a collection of various discrete components such as passive as well as active elements fabricated on a single semiconductor crystal chip. The semiconductor material used for fabricating IC chips is normally silicon. The IC chips can be constructed much smaller than the discrete circuits that is made from independent ...

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