Memory devices are digital systems that store data either temporarily or for a long term. Digital computers to hard disks have built-in memory devices that can store the data of the user or manufacturer. The data can either be in the form of control programs or programs that boot the system. Hence, to store such huge amount of data the memory devices must have enormous capacity. The challenge is to build memory devices that have large capacity but cost effective. The memory devices must be capable of storing both permanent data and instantaneous data.

The memory devices are made of semiconductor materials. The basic capabilities of a memory is its ability to store a value; it should permit us to read the value that is saved and also alter ...

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