1Introduction

André Årnes

Testimon Forensic Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Gjøvik, Norway; and Telenor Group, Oslo, Norway

The world is becoming increasingly interconnected. We find connected devices in virtually every home, and computer networks are the nervous systems of corporate and government organizations everywhere. According to Internet Live Stats (2016), there are almost 3.5 billion Internet users in the world as of August 2016, covering close to 50% of the world's population. The Internet is, however, a network of networks consisting of competing and concurrent technologies with users from different organizations and countries. Unfortunately for the investigator, the Internet was designed for robustness and redundancy, rather than security and traceability. This increases the complexity and uncertainty of digital investigations and represents a formidable challenge for digital forensics practitioners.

Digital forensics is becoming increasingly important with the escalation of cybercrime and other network-related serious crimes. Understanding the laws and regulations governing electronic communications, cybercrimes, and data retention requires the continuous acquisition of new knowledge, methods, and tools. Digital evidence is everywhere and plays an important role in virtually any criminal investigation, from petty crimes to cybercrime, organized crime, and terrorism. It is therefore critically important that students of computer ...

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