Color Modulation

As in the NTSC system, U and V are used to modulate the color subcarrier using two balanced modulators operating in phase quadrature: one modulator is driven by the subcarrier at sine phase; the other modulator is driven by the subcarrier at cosine phase. The outputs of the modulators are added together to form the modulated chrominance signal:

In PAL, the phase of V is reversed every other line. V was chosen for the reversal process since it has a lower gain factor than U and therefore is less susceptible to a one-half FH switching ...

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