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Discovery of Novel Natural Products with Therapeutic Potential

Book Description

Although science has discovered effective drugs for many of the diseases that afflict mankind, many human health problems remain untreatable. The search for novel therapeutic agents is always ongoing. This book will describe some of the diverse sources
of natural products, such as terrestrial and marine environments; and will review how research has increased knowledge of biological systems and human disease, leading to the design of targeted asssays, amenable to high volume screening.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY
  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY SERIES
  6. Copyright
  7. CONTRIBUTORS
  8. PREFACE
  9. PART I: THE SOURCE OF CHEMICAL DIVERSITY
    1. Chapter 1: Aerobic Actinomycetes: A Continuing Source of Novel Natural Products
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 1.1 MICROMONOSPORAE
      3. 1.2 NON-MICROMONOSPORAE-NON-STREPTOMYCETES
      4. 1.3 NOCARDIOFORM ACTINOMYCETES
      5. 1.4 CONCLUSIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Bacteria As a Source of Novel Therapeutics
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 2.1 SOURCES OF BACTERIA FOR SCREENS
      3. 2.2 METHODS FOR ISOLATING BACTERIA
      4. 2.3 SAMPLE PROCESSING
      5. 2.4 SUBCULTURING AND PURIFICATION
      6. 2.5 PRESERVATION AND MAINTENANCE
      7. 2.6 FUTURE PROJECTIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Potential of Fungi in the Discovery of Novel, Low-Molecular Weight Pharmaceuticals
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 3.1 CREATIVITY, TAXONOMY, AND ECOLOGY
      3. 3.2 THE UNTAPPED POOL
      4. 3.3 ECO-TAXONOMIC LANDSCAPE: A WORKING MODEL
      5. 3.4 CONCLUSIONS
      6. APPENDIX A USEFUL TIPS FROM AN INDUSTRIAL SCREENING PROGRAM
      7. APPENDIX B ECOLOGICALLY DIRECTED SEARCH FOR NEW FUNGI AND THEIR PRODUCTS: A STUDY ON XYLOTROPIC ENDOPHYTES
      8. Conclusions
    4. Chapter 4: The Discovery of Drugs from Higher Plants
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 4.1 IMPORTANCE OF PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS
      3. 4.2 APPROACHES TO THE DISCOVERY OF DRUGS FROM PLANT SOURCES
      4. 4.3 PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES
      5. 4.4 SOME PROMISING DRUG CANDIDATES OF PLANT ORIGIN
      6. 4.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS
    5. Chapter 5: The Discovery of Marine Natural Products with Therapeutic Potential
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 5.1 SOURCES OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS WITH THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL
      3. 5.2 APPROACHES TO THE DISCOVERY OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS
      4. 5.3 NOTEWORTHY AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS
      5. 5.4 SELECTED COMPOUNDS WITH THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL
      6. 5.5 COMPOUNDS IN CLINICAL TRIAL
      7. 5.6 CLINICAL AGENTS RESEMBLING MARINE-DERIVED COMPOUNDS
      8. 5.7 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. 5.8 CONCLUSIONS
  10. PART II: NEW TARGETS FOR SCREENING ASSAYS
    1. Chapter 6: Mechanism-Based Screening for the Discovery of Novel Antifungals
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 6.1 GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
      3. 6.2 OVERVIEW OF DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR MECHANISM-OF-ACTION-BASED SCREENS
      4. 6.3 SCREENING APPROACHES FOR ANTIFUNGALS ACTING ON CELL WALL BIOSYNTHESIS
      5. 6.4 SCREENING APPROACHES FOR ANTIFUNGALS ACTING ON ERGOSTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
      6. 6.5 SCREENING APPROACHES FQR ANTIFUNGALS ACTING ON THE CYTOSKELETON
      7. 6.6 SCREENING APPROACHES FOR ANTIFUNGALS ACTING ON OTHER TARGETS
      8. 6.7 CLOSING COMMENTS
    2. Chapter 7: Strategies for Discovering Antiviral Agents from Natural Products
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 7.1 ANTIVIRAL THERAPY: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      3. 7.2 ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH TODAY: A COMBINATION OF CLASSICAL VIROLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
      4. 7.3 TESTING NATURALLY DERIVED SAMPLES FOR ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
      5. 7.4 STRATEGIES FOR IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITIES IN NATURAL PRODUCTS
      6. 7.5 EXAMPLES OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZING ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY AND PREDICTING THE EFFECT OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS PRIOR TO CLINICAL STUDIES
      7. 7.6 CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 8: Mechanism-Based Screens in the Discovery of Chemotherapeutic Antibacterials
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 8.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      3. 8.2 ANTIBACTERIALS AND EMERGING TARGETS
      4. 8.2.4 DNA-Targeting Antibacterials
      5. 8.3 SUMMARY
    4. Chapter 9: Oncogene Function Inhibitors of Microbial Origin
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 9.1 TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS
      3. 9.2 INHIBITORS OF ras ONCOGENE FUNCTIONS
      4. 9.3 INHIBITORS OF PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL TURNOVER
      5. 9.4 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    5. Chapter 10: Screening Methodologies for the Discovery of Novel Cytotoxic Antitumor Agents
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 10.1 IN VITRO BIOCHEMICAL ASSAYS
      3. 10.2 MAMMALIAN CELL–BASED ASSAYS
      4. 10.3 IN VIVO ANIMAL MODELS
      5. 10.4 CONCLUSIONS
    6. Chapter 11: Hypocholesterolemic Agents
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 11.1 BACKGROUND OF APPROACH
      3. 11.2 ASSAY OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
      4. 11.3 COMPACTIN-RELATED COMPOUNDS
    7. Chapter 12: Immunomodulators
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 12.1 SCREENING FOR IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS
      3. 12.2 SCREENING FOR IMMUNOSTIMULANTS
      4. 12.3 PERSPECTIVES: NEW TARGETS FOR IMMUNOMODULATORS
  11. PART III: ISOLATION AND STRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
    1. Chapter 13: Isolation and Purification of Secondary Metabolites
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 13.1 PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY
      3. 13.2 ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY
      4. 13.3 SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY
      5. 13.4 REVERSED PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY
      6. 13.5 ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY
      7. 13.6 AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY
      8. 13.7 CONCLUSIONS
    2. Chapter 14: Modern Spectroscopic Approaches to Structure Elucidation
      1. Publisher Summary
      2. 14.1 STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION PROCESS: PART A
      3. 14.2 STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION PROCESS: PART B
      4. 14.3 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
  12. INDEX