1By flipflop we mean the three element monoid U2 = {1, a, b} with xy = y for y 1.
2Historical sources do not entirely agree on the exact form.
3The Vernam one-time pad was used on the red telephone which connected the White House to the Kremlin during the Cold War.
4This scenario was taken from the lecture notes of a course taught by Holger Petersen at the University of Stuttgart in Summer Semester 2007.
5The Gödel Prize is awarded annually for the best work in the field of theoretical computer science, published in the last 13 years.
6According to Jacques Monods (19101976) book Le hasard et la nécessité. Essai sur la philosophie naturelle de la biologie moderne from 1970.
7In the context of monoids, we use the symbol 1 for the ...

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