The ITU's TMN (Telecommunications Management Network) Recommendations
M.3000 through M.3600 describe network management in terms of FCAPS:
Fault: Alarm surveillance and testing
Configuration: Provisioning of equipment and facilities
Accounting: Billing and customer service records
Performance monitoring: Records of traffic and errors
Security: Restricted access to operations systems
The Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) group of the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) created the common information model (CIM), which uses the universal modeling language (UML) to define the data that may be used by the CMIP, CORBA, and XML systems described below.
The TeleManagement Forum also addresses operations systems with a top-down perspective.