Random Access Memories

1.1    Introduction

The last few decades have seen a tremendous increase in usage of semiconductor memories, and there has been no looking back. Digital circuits and systems are using semiconductor memories in ever-increasing proportion. Advances in technology and fabrication processes have resulted in a high rate of continuous increase in the memory density. Performance has also been improving, which has opened new application areas considered unreachable. A broad categorization of semiconductor memories is in terms of their ability to retain stored data when supply is stopped; volatile memories lose their data whereas nonvolatile memories retain it. Be it volatile or nonvolatile, in most of the semiconductor memories ...

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