Leakages in DRAMs

7.1    Introduction

Continued reduction of minimum feature size and the advancements in the fabrication processes were the main reasons for the DRAM density enhancement. As soon as multi-megabit DRAM appeared on the horizon, it opened completely new application areas for the DRAMs. The use of megabit DRAMs in portable equipment, which required low-voltage operation, such that they could operate on battery for longer duration, became highly desirable. At one point in time, a 5 V supply was standard but was not suitable for long-term battery-based operation. In the low-voltage operating range a 1.5 V DRAM given by M. Aoki and others [1] was one of the first such DRAMs. It also reduced power consumption as bit line swing ...

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