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Ecosystems and Human Health, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Since the second edition of this text was published, many new environmental incidents have occurred, including another nuclear disaster, a mine disaster in the United States, and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Updated throughout the text, Ecosystems and Human Health: Toxicology and Environmental Hazards, Third Edition explores the broad range of env

Table of Contents

  1. Author
  2. Chapter 1 - Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology
    1. Introduction
    2. Pharmacokinetics
      1. Absorption
      2. Distribution
      3. Biotransformation
      4. Elimination
    3. Pharmacodynamics
      1. Ligand Binding and Receptors
      2. Biological Variation and Data Manipulation
      3. Dose Response
      4. Probit Analysis
      5. Cumulative Effects
      6. Factors Influencing Responses to Xenobiotics
        1. Age
        2. Body Composition
        3. Sex
        4. Genetic Factors
        5. Presence of Pathology
        6. Xenobiotic Interactions
    4. Some Toxicological Considerations
      1. Acute versus Chronic Toxicity
      2. Acute Toxicity
        1. Peripheral Neurotoxins
        2. Central Neurotoxins
        3. Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation
        4. Uncoupling Agents
        5. Inhibitors of Intermediary Metabolism
        6. Chronic Toxicity
    5. Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
      1. Introduction
      2. Genetics of Carcinogenesis
        1. Oncogene
        2. Proto-Oncogene
        3. Tumor Suppressor Genes
        4. Growth Factor Receptors
        5. Hormone Receptors
        6. Drug Resistance Genes
        7. Antisense Genes
        8. Genetic Predisposition to Cancer
      3. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
      4. Viruses and Cancer
      5. Models of Carcinogenesis
        1. Model 1
        2. Model 2
        3. Model 3
        4. Model 4
        5. Model 5
        6. Model 6
      6. Stages of Chemically Induced Carcinogenesis
        1. Initiation
        2. Promotion
        3. Progression
    6. DNA and Cell Repair
      1. Response of Tissues to Chemical Insult
      2. DNA Repair
      3. Cell Repair and Regeneration in Toxic Reactions
    7. Fetal Toxicology
      1. Teratogenesis
      2. Transplacental Carcinogenesis
    8. Population and Pollution
    9. Review Questions
    10. Answers
    11. Further Reading
  3. Chapter 2 - Risk Analysis and Public Perceptions of Risk
    1. Introduction
    2. Assessment of Toxicity versus Risk
    3. Predicting Risk: Workplace versus the Environment
      1. Acute Exposures
      2. Chronic Exposures
      3. Very-Low-Level, Long-Term Exposures
      4. Carcinogenesis
        1. Risk Assessment and Carcinogenesis
      5. Sources of Error in Predicting Cancer Risks
        1. Portal-of-Entry Effects
        2. Age Effects
        3. Exposure to Co-Carcinogens and Promoters
        4. Species Differences
        5. Extrapolation of Animal Data to Humans
        6. Hormesis
        7. Natural versus Anthropogenic Carcinogens
        8. Reliability of Tests of Carcinogenesis
    4. Environmental Monitoring
    5. Setting Safe Limits in the Workplace
    6. Some Important Definitions
      1. Psychological Impact of Real and Potential Environmental Risks
      2. Voluntary Risk Acceptance versus Imposed Risks
      3. Costs of Risk Avoidance
      4. Nuclear Accidents
      5. Formaldehyde
      6. Dioxin (TCDD)
    7. Some Legal Aspects of Risk
      1. De Minimis Concept
      2. Delaney Amendment
    8. Statistical Problems with Risk Assessment
    9. Risk Management
    10. Precautionary Principle
    11. Case Study 1
    12. Case Study 2
    13. Review Questions
    14. Answers
    15. Further Reading
  4. Chapter 3 - Water and Soil Pollution
    1. Introduction
    2. Factors Affecting Toxicants in Water
      1. Exchange of Toxicants in an Ecosystem
      2. Factors (Modifiers) Affecting Uptake of Toxicants from the Environment
        1. Abiotic Modifiers
        2. Biotic Modifiers
      3. Invasive Species
    3. Some Important Definitions
    4. Toxicity Testing in Marine and Aquatic Species
    5. Water Quality
      1. Sources of Pollution
      2. Some Major Water Pollutants
      3. Chemical Classification of Pesticides
    6. Health Hazards of Pesticides and Related Chemicals
      1. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
      2. Chlorophenoxy Acid Herbicides
      3. Organophosphates (Organophosphorus Insecticides)
      4. Carbamates
        1. Bhopal Disaster
    7. Acidity and Toxic Metals
    8. Chemical Hazards from Waste Disposal
      1. Love Canal Story
        1. Problems with Love Canal Studies
      2. Evidence of Adverse Effects on Human Health
      3. Evidence for Adverse Effects in Wildlife
    9. Global Warming and Water Levels in the Great Lakes
    10. Marine Environment
      1. Sources of Marine Pollution
        1. Nonpoint Sources of Pollution
        2. Point Sources of Pollution
    11. Biological Hazards in Drinking Water
    12. Walkerton Water Crisis
    13. Review Questions
    14. Answers
    15. Further Reading
  5. Chapter 4 - Airborne Hazards
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of Air Pollution
      1. Gaseous Pollutants
      2. Particulates
      3. Smog
    3. Sources of Air Pollution
    4. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants
      1. Movement in the Troposphere
      2. Movement in the Stratosphere
      3. Water and Soil Transport of Air Pollutants
    5. Types of Pollutants
      1. Gaseous Pollutants
      2. Particulate Pollutants
    6. Health Effects of Air Pollution
      1. Acute Effects
      2. Chronic Effects
    7. Adverse Effects of Aerial Spraying
      1. Light-Brown Apple Moth
      2. Painted Apple Moth and the Asian Gypsy Moth
      3. Other Incidents
      4. Spraying with Conventional Insecticides
    8. Air Pollution in the Workplace
      1. Asbestos
      2. Silicosis
      3. Pyrolysis of Plastics
      4. Dust
      5. Methane
      6. CO and NO2
      7. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
    9. Chemical Impact of Pollutants on the Environment
      1. Sulfur Dioxide and Acid Rain
      2. Chemistry of Ozone
      3. Chlorine
    10. Climate Change
      1. Global Warming Debate
      2. Chemistry of Climate Change
        1. Water
        2. Carbon Dioxide
        3. Methane
        4. Sulfur Dioxide
        5. Motor Vehicle Exhaust
      3. Subtle Greenhouse Effects
      4. Global Cooling: New Ice Age?
    11. Natural Factors and Climate Change
    12. Remedies
    13. Case Study 3
    14. Case Study 4
    15. Case Study 5
    16. Case Study 6
    17. Case Study 7
    18. Case Study 8
    19. Review Questions
    20. Answers
    21. Further Reading
  6. Chapter 5 - Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    1. Introduction
      1. Antibacterial Disinfectants
      2. Herbicides
      3. Dioxin (TCDD) Toxicity
        1. Hepatotoxicity
        2. Porphyria
        3. Chloracne
        4. Carcinogenicity
        5. Neurotoxicity
        6. Reproductive Toxicity
        7. Metabolic Disturbances
      4. Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Enzyme Induction
      5. Paraquat
      6. Insecticides
      7. Industrial and Commercial Chemicals
        1. Biphenyls
        2. Toxicity
        3. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
        4. Biodegradation
      8. Accidental Human Exposures
      9. Problem of Disposal
      10. Solvents
        1. Toxicity
        2. Mechanism of Toxicity
      11. Trihalomethanes
    2. Case Study 9
    3. Case Study 10
    4. Review Questions
    5. Answers
    6. Further Reading
  7. Chapter 6 - Toxicity of Metals
    1. Introduction
    2. Lead
      1. Toxicokinetics of Lead
      2. Cellular Toxicity of Lead
      3. Fetal Toxicity
      4. Treatment
    3. Mercury
      1. Elemental Mercury Toxicity
      2. Inorganic Mercurial Salts
      3. Organic Mercurials
      4. Mechanism of Mercury Toxicity
      5. Treatment of Mercury Poisoning
        1. The Grassy Narrows Story
    4. Cadmium
      1. Cadmium Toxicokinetics
      2. Cadmium Toxicity
        1. Treatment
    5. Arsenic
      1. Toxicokinetics of Arsenicals
      2. Toxicity of Arsenicals
      3. Treatment
      4. Environmental Effects of Arsenic
    6. Chromium
    7. Other Metals
      1. Aluminum
      2. Manganese
      3. Uranium
      4. Antimony
      5. Nutritional Elements
      6. Metallothioneins
    8. Carcinogenicity of Metals
    9. Unusual Sources of Heavy Metal Exposure
    10. Case Study 11
    11. Case Study 12
    12. Case Study 13
    13. Review Questions
    14. Answers
    15. Further Reading
  8. Chapter 7 - Organic Solvents and Related Chemicals
    1. Introduction
    2. Classes of Solvents
      1. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
      2. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
      3. Aliphatic Alcohols
      4. Glycols and Glycol Ethers
      5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    3. Solvent-Related Cancer in the Workplace
      1. Benzene
      2. Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether
      3. Dimethylformamide and Glycol Ethers
      4. Ethylene Oxide (CH2CH2O)
    4. Factors Influencing the Risk of a Toxic Reaction
    5. Nonoccupational Exposures to Solvents
    6. Case Study 14
    7. Case Study 15
    8. Case Study 16
    9. Review Questions
    10. Answers
    11. Further Reading
  9. Chapter 8 - Food Additives, Drug Residues, and Food Contaminants
    1. Food Additives
      1. Food and Drug Regulations
      2. Some Types of Food Additives
      3. Artificial Food Colors
        1. Banned or Restricted Artificial Food Colors
      4. Emulsifiers
      5. Preservatives and Antioxidants
      6. Artificial Sweeteners
      7. Flavor Enhancers
    2. Drug Residues
      1. Antibiotics and Drug Resistance
        1. Infectious Drug Resistance
        2. Infectious Diseases
        3. Allergy
    3. Hormones as Growth Promotants in Livestock
      1. Diethylstilbestrol
      2. Bovine Growth Hormone
      3. Other Hormonal Growth Promotants
    4. Natural Toxicants and Carcinogens in Human Foods
      1. Some Natural Toxicants
        1. Favism
        2. Toxic Oil Syndrome
        3. Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome
    5. Herbal Remedies
    6. Natural Carcinogens in Foods
    7. Case Study 17
    8. Review Questions
    9. Answers
    10. Further Reading
  10. Chapter 9 - Pesticides
    1. Introduction
    2. Classes of Insecticides
      1. Organochlorines (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)
      2. Organophosphorus Insecticides
        1. Carbamate Insecticides
        2. Botanical Insecticides
    3. Herbicides
      1. Chlorphenoxy Compounds
      2. Dinitrophenols
      3. Bipyridyls
      4. Carbamate Herbicides
      5. Triazines
    4. Fungicides
      1. Dicarboximides
      2. Newer Biological Control Methods
    5. Government Regulation of Pesticides
    6. Problems Associated with Pesticides
      1. Development of Resistance
      2. Multiple Pesticide Resistance
      3. Nonspecificity
      4. Environmental Contamination
    7. Balancing the Risks and Benefits
    8. Toxicity of Pesticides for Humans
    9. Case Study 18
    10. Case Study 19
    11. Review Questions
    12. Answers
    13. Further Reading
  11. Chapter 10 - Mycotoxins and Other Toxins from Unicellular Organisms
    1. Introduction
    2. Some Health Problems Associated with Mycotoxins
      1. Ergotism
      2. Aleukia
    3. Some Specific Mycotoxins
      1. Aflatoxins
      2. Fumonisins
      3. Ochratoxins
      4. Patulin
      5. Fusarium Species
        1. Zearalenone
        2. Vomitoxin (Deoxynivalenol or DON)
        3. Other Tricothecenes
    4. Economic Impact of Mycotoxins
    5. Detoxification of Grains
      1. Harvesting and Milling
      2. Chemical Treatments
      3. Binding Agents
      4. Other Techniques
    6. Review Questions
    7. Answers
    8. Further Reading
  12. Chapter 11 - Animal and Plant Poisons
    1. Introduction
    2. Toxic and Venomous Animals
      1. Toxic and Venomous Marine Animals
      2. Scale Fish Toxins
        1. Ciguatoxin
        2. Tetrodotoxin
        3. Scombroid Toxins
        4. Ichthyotoxin
      3. Red Tide Dinoflagellate Toxicity for Higher Species
      4. Shellfish Toxins
        1. Saxitoxins
        2. Brevetoxins
        3. Domoic Acid
        4. Okadaic Acid
        5. Azaspiracid Toxin
        6. Yessotoxin
        7. Palytoxin
      5. Stinging Fish Venoms
      6. Mollusk Venoms
        1. Conotoxins
      7. Coelenterate Toxins
      8. Echinoderm Venoms
    3. Freshwater Algae
    4. Toxic and Venomous Land Animals
      1. Venomous Snakes
      2. Snake Venoms
      3. First Aid
    5. Venomous Arthropods
    6. Toxic Plants and Mushrooms
      1. Introduction
      2. Vesicants
      3. Cardiac Glycosides
      4. Astringents and Gastrointestinal Irritants (Pyrogallol Tannins)
      5. Autonomic Agents
      6. Dissolvers of Microtubles
      7. Phorbol Esters (for Example, Phorbol Myristate Acetate, PMA)
      8. Cyanogenic Glycosides
        1. Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide
      9. Convulsants
    7. Case Study 20
    8. Case Study 21
    9. Case Study 22
    10. Case Study 23
    11. Case Study 24
    12. Case Study 25
    13. Case Study 26
    14. Review Questions
    15. Answers
    16. Further Reading
      1. Used in Research and Treatment
  13. Chapter 12 - Environmental Hormone Disrupters
    1. Introduction
    2. Lake Apopka Incident
    3. Disruption of Endocrine Function
      1. Mechanisms
      2. Methods of Testing for Hormone Disruption
      3. Some Examples of Xenoestrogen Interactions with E2 Receptors In Vitro or Effects in In Vivo Tests
      4. Some Effects of Xenoestrogens on the Male Reproductive System
      5. Modulation of Hormone Activity through Effects on the Ah Receptor
        1. Estrogen/Androgen Effects
        2. Effects on Thyroid Function
    4. Plastic-Associated Chemicals
    5. Phytoestrogens
    6. Results of Human Studies on Xenoestrogens
      1. Males
      2. Females
    7. Case Study 27
    8. Review Questions
    9. Answers
    10. Further Reading
  14. Chapter 13 - Radiation Hazards
    1. Introduction
    2. Sources and Types of Radiation
      1. Sources
        1. Natural Sources of Radiation
        2. Man-Made Sources of Radiation
        3. Cause of Radiation
      2. Types of Radioactive Energy Resulting from Nuclear Decay
    3. Measurement of Radiation
      1. Measures of Energy
      2. Measures of Damage
      3. Hiroshima
        1. Hiroshima Update
      4. Three Mile Island
      5. Hanford Release
      6. Chernobyl
      7. Fukushima, Japan
    4. Radon Gas: The Natural Radiation
    5. Tissue Sensitivity to Radiation
    6. Microwaves
    7. Cell Phone Use and Brain Tumors
    8. Ultraviolet Radiation
      1. Medical Uses of UV Radiation
    9. Extra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation
    10. Irradiation of Foodstuffs
    11. Irradiation of Insect Pests
    12. Case Study 28
    13. Review Questions
    14. Answers
    15. Further Reading
  15. Chapter 14 - Gaia and Chaos: How Things Are Connected
    1. Gaia Hypothesis
    2. Chaos Theory
    3. Other Examples of Interconnected Systems
      1. Vicious Circle
      2. Domino Effects of Global Warming
      3. Feedback Loop
    4. Food Production and the Environment
      1. Meat versus Grain
      2. Genetically Modified Plant Foods
    5. The Environment and Cancer
    6. Further Reading
  16. Chapter 15 - Case Study Reviews
    1. Case Study 1
    2. Case Study 2
    3. Case Study 3
    4. Case Study 4
    5. Case Study 5
    6. Case Study 6
    7. Case Study 7
    8. Case Study 8
    9. Case Study 9
    10. Case Study 10
    11. Case Study 11
    12. Case Study 12
    13. Case Study 13
    14. Case Study 14
    15. Case Studies 15 and 16
    16. Case Study 17
    17. Case Study 18
    18. Case Study 19
    19. Case Study 20
    20. Case Study 21
    21. Case Study 22
    22. Case Study 23
    23. Case Study 24
    24. Case Study 25
    25. Case Study 26
    26. Case Study 27
    27. Case Study 28
    28. References