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Educational Technology: by Jagdeesh Chaudhary, R. P. Pathak

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Programmed Learning

Educational technology is said to have evolved through three important stages, i.e. use of audio-visual aids to improve the teaching-learning process, preparation of programmed learning (PL) materials based on the needs and capacities of the learners and, more recently, use of‘ ‘system approach’ to solve educational problems. PL has thus evolved as a technology of education to improve the instructional process through use of principles of learning.

Concept of Programmed Learning

All instruction involves teaching, but all teaching cannot become instruction. However, before beginning to explain PL, it is better to see the difference between ‘teaching’ ‘instruction’ and ‘programmed learning’. According to Edger Dales, ‘Teaching ...

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