NOT LONG AGO, few applications were coded with security in mind, let alone coded so that security was a central design concept. In the mid–1990s, for instance, few developers outside of niche areas such as finance or defense even addressed security in any substantive way. However, each time a new virus made the headlines or a security breach happened, security moved into the public awareness. Today, it is irresponsible for developers and architects to ignore security. Cryptography is one tool that developers have at their disposal to secure their applications. Cryptography is primarily used to ensure that data:
• Remains private (data privacy)
• Is protected from modification (data integrity)
• Originates ...