Researchers use models with different levels of accuracy and complexity, in order to analyze the handling performance of vehicles. While some simple linear models may consider only lateral and yaw dynamics, there are other simple models for roll or pitch dynamics that ignore all other aspects of vehicle dynamics. In general, simple models are unable to express vehicle handling behavior accurately and are only useful for basic handling analyses. More complex handing models consider the lateral, longitudinal, and roll dynamics, as well as the nonlinearities in the system. In the case of modern electric and hybrid electric vehicles, comprehensive handling models are necessary to consider the effect of the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral dynamics.
This chapter focuses on developing a comprehensive handling model for electric and hybrid vehicles suitable for simulation purposes. To provide a better understanding of the basic concepts of vehicle handing, the chapter begins with linear handing models such as bicycle, roll and pitch models used for the analytical analysis of vehicle handling performance. Finally, a comprehensive handling model for electric and hybrid vehicles is introduced, discussed and simulated.
7.2 Simplified Handling Models
Simplified linear handling models are only accurate when the vehicle lateral acceleration is relatively low and the tire behavior is linear. These ...