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Electric Energy, 3rd Edition

Book Description

The search for renewable energy and smart grids, the societal impact of blackouts, and the environmental impact of generating electricity, along with the new ABET criteria, continue to drive a renewed interest in electric energy as a core subject. Keeping pace with these changes, Electric Energy: An Introduction, Third Edition restructures the trad

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Author
  3. List of Acronyms
  4. Chapter 1 - History of Power Systems
    1. 1.1 Thomas A. Edison (1847–1931)
    2. 1.2 Nikola Tesla (1856–1943)
    3. 1.3 Battle of AC versus DC
    4. 1.4 Today’s Power Systems
    5. Exercises
  5. Chapter 2 - Basic Components of Power Systems
    1. 2.1 Power Plants
      1. 2.1.1 Turbines
      2. 2.1.2 Generators
    2. 2.2 Transformers
    3. 2.3 Transmission Lines
    4. 2.4 Distribution Lines
    5. 2.5 Conductors
      1. 2.5.1 Bundled Conductor
      2. 2.5.2 Static (Shield) Wire
    6. 2.6 Substations
      1. 2.6.1 Potential Transformer
      2. 2.6.2 Current Transformer
      3. 2.6.3 Circuit Breaker
      4. 2.6.4 Disconnecting Switches
      5. 2.6.5 Surge Arrester
    7. 2.7 Control Centers
    8. 2.8 Worldwide Standards for Household Voltage and Frequency
      1. 2.8.1 Voltage Standard
      2. 2.8.2 Frequency Standard
        1. 2.8.2.1 Frequency of Generating Plants
        2. 2.8.2.2 Frequency of Power Grids
    9. Exercises
  6. Chapter 3 - Energy Resources
    1. 3.1 Fossil Fuel
      1. 3.1.1 Oil
      2. 3.1.2 Natural Gas
      3. 3.1.3 Coal
    2. 3.2 Nuclear Fuel
    3. Exercises
  7. Chapter 4 - Power Plants
    1. 4.1 Hydroelectric Power Plants
      1. 4.1.1 Types of Hydroelectric Power Plants
      2. 4.1.2 Impoundment Hydroelectric Power Plants
        1. 4.1.2.1 Impulse Turbine
        2. 4.1.2.2 Reaction Turbine
        3. 4.1.2.3 Reservoir
        4. 4.1.2.4 Penstock
        5. 4.1.2.5 Power Flow
    2. 4.2 Fossil Fuel Power Plants
      1. 4.2.1 Thermal Energy Constant
      2. 4.2.2 Description of Thermal Power Plant
    3. 4.3 Nuclear Power Plants
      1. 4.3.1 Nuclear Fuel
      2. 4.3.2 Uranium Enrichment
      3. 4.3.3 Fission Process
      4. 4.3.4 Fission Control
      5. 4.3.5 Boiling Water Reactor
      6. 4.3.6 Pressurized Water Reactor
      7. 4.3.7 CANDU Reactor
      8. 4.3.8 Safety Features in Nuclear Power Plants
      9. 4.3.9 Disposal of Nuclear Waste
        1. 4.3.9.1 Wet Storage
        2. 4.3.9.2 Dry Storage
        3. 4.3.9.3 Permanent Storage
    4. Exercises
  8. Chapter 5 - Environmental Impact of Power Plants
    1. 5.1 Environmental Concerns Related to Fossil Fuel Power Plants
      1. 5.1.1 Sulfur Oxides
      2. 5.1.2 Nitrogen Oxides
      3. 5.1.3 Ozone
      4. 5.1.4 Acid Rain
      5. 5.1.5 Carbon Dioxide
      6. 5.1.6 Ashes
      7. 5.1.7 Legionnaires’ Disease and Cooling Towers
    2. 5.2 Environmental Concerns Related to Hydroelectric Power Plants
      1. 5.2.1 Case Study: The Aswan Dam
    3. 5.3 Environmental Concerns Related to Nuclear Power Plants
      1. 5.3.1 Radioactive Release during Normal Operation
      2. 5.3.2 Loss of Coolant
      3. 5.3.3 Disposal of Radioactive Waste
    4. Exercises
  9. Chapter 6 - Renewable Energy
    1. 6.1 Solar Energy
      1. 6.1.1 Passive Solar Energy System
      2. 6.1.2 Active Solar Energy System (Photovoltaic)
        1. 6.1.2.1 Ideal PV Model
        2. 6.1.2.2 Effect of Irradiance and Temperature on Solar Cells
        3. 6.1.2.3 PV Module
        4. 6.1.2.4 Real Model of PV
        5. 6.1.2.5 Daily Power Profile of PV Array
        6. 6.1.2.6 Photovoltaic System Integration
        7. 6.1.2.7 Evaluation of PV Systems
    2. 6.2 Wind Energy
      1. 6.2.1 Kinetic Energy of Wind
      2. 6.2.2 Wind Turbine
      3. 6.2.3 Aerodynamic Force
      4. 6.2.4 Angle-of-Attack
      5. 6.2.5 Pitch Angle
      6. 6.2.6 Coefficient of Performance and Turbine Efficiency
      7. 6.2.7 Operating Range of Wind Turbine
      8. 6.2.8 Tip Speed Ratio
      9. 6.2.9 Feathering
      10. 6.2.10 Classifications of Wind Turbines
        1. 6.2.10.1 Alignment of Rotating Axis
        2. 6.2.10.2 Types of Generators
        3. 6.2.10.3 Speed of Rotation
      11. 6.2.11 Types of Wind Turbine
        1. 6.2.11.1 Type 1 Wind Turbine
        2. 6.2.11.2 Type 2 Wind Turbine
        3. 6.2.11.3 Type 3 Wind Turbine
        4. 6.2.11.4 Type 4 Wind Turbine
      12. 6.2.12 Wind Farm Performance
      13. 6.2.13 Evaluation of Wind Energy
    3. 6.3 Hydrokinetic Systems
      1. 6.3.1 Small Hydro Systems
        1. 6.3.1.1 Main Components of Small Hydro System
        2. 6.3.1.2 Effective Head
        3. 6.3.1.3 System Efficiency
        4. 6.3.1.4 Site Calculations
        5. 6.3.1.5 Evaluation of Small Hydro Systems
      2. 6.3.2 Tidal and Stream Energy System
        1. 6.3.2.1 Barrage System
        2. 6.3.2.2 Water Stream Energy
        3. 6.3.2.3 Evaluation of Tidal and Stream Energy
      3. 6.3.3 Wave Energy System
        1. 6.3.3.1 Buoyant Moored System
        2. 6.3.3.2 Hinged Contour System
        3. 6.3.3.3 Oscillating Water Column System
        4. 6.3.3.4 Evaluation of Wave Energy
    4. 6.4 Geothermal Energy
      1. 6.4.1 Heat Pump
      2. 6.4.2 Geothermal Electricity
        1. 6.4.2.1 Geothermal Reservoir
        2. 6.4.2.2 Hot Dry Rock
      3. 6.4.3 Geothermal Power Plants
        1. 6.4.3.1 Evaluation of Geothermal Energy
    5. 6.5 Biomass Energy
    6. 6.6 Fuel Cell
      1. 6.6.1 Hydrogen Fuel
      2. 6.6.2 Types of Fuel Cells
        1. 6.6.2.1 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
        2. 6.6.2.2 Alkaline Fuel Cell
        3. 6.6.2.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
        4. 6.6.2.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
        5. 6.6.2.5 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
        6. 6.6.2.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
      3. 6.6.3 Hydrogen Economy
      4. 6.6.4 Modeling of Ideal Fuel Cells
        1. 6.6.4.1 Thermal Process of Fuel Cells
        2. 6.6.4.2 Electrical Process of Fuel Cells
      5. 6.6.5 Modeling of Actual Fuel Cells
        1. 6.6.5.1 Polarization Characteristics of Fuel Cells
      6. 6.6.6 Evaluation of Fuel Cells
      7. 6.6.7 Fuel Cells and the Environment
        1. 6.6.7.1 Generation of Hydrogen
        2. 6.6.7.2 Safety of Hydrogen
    7. 6.7 Intermittency of Renewable Systems
    8. 6.8 Energy Storage Systems
      1. 6.8.1 Pumped Hydro Storage
      2. 6.8.2 Compressed Air Energy Storage
      3. 6.8.3 Batteries
      4. 6.8.4 Flywheels
    9. Exercises
  10. Chapter 7 - Alternating Current Circuits
    1. 7.1 Alternating Current Waveform
    2. 7.2 Root Mean Square
    3. 7.3 Phase Shift
    4. 7.4 Concept of Phasors
    5. 7.5 Complex Number Analysis
    6. 7.6 Complex Impedance
      1. 7.6.1 Series Impedance
      2. 7.6.2 Parallel Impedance
    7. 7.7 Electric Power
      1. 7.7.1 Real Power
      2. 7.7.2 Reactive Power
      3. 7.7.3 Complex Power
      4. 7.7.4 Summary of AC Phasors
      5. 7.7.5 Power Factor
      6. 7.7.6 Problems Related to Reactive Power
      7. 7.7.7 Power Factor Correction
    8. 7.8 Electric Energy
    9. Exercises
  11. Chapter 8 - Three-Phase Systems
    1. 8.1 Generation of Three-Phase Voltages
    2. 8.2 Connections of Three-Phase Circuits
      1. 8.2.1 Wye-Connected Balanced Source
      2. 8.2.2 Delta-Connected Balanced Source
      3. 8.2.3 Wye-Connected Balanced Load
      4. 8.2.4 Delta-Connected Balanced Load
      5. 8.2.5 Circuits with Mixed Connections
      6. 8.2.6 Wye-Delta Transformation
    3. 8.3 Power Calculations of Balanced Three-Phase Circuits
      1. 8.3.1 Three-Phase Power of Balanced Wye Loads
      2. 8.3.2 Three-Phase Power of Balanced Delta Loads
    4. Exercises
  12. Chapter 9 - Electric Safety
    1. 9.1 Electric Shock
      1. 9.1.1 Current Limits of Electric Shocks
      2. 9.1.2 Factors Determining the Severity of Electric Shocks
        1. 9.1.2.1 Effect of Voltage
        2. 9.1.2.2 Effect of Current
        3. 9.1.2.3 Effect of Body Resistance
        4. 9.1.2.4 Effect of Current Pathway
        5. 9.1.2.5 Effect of Shock Duration
        6. 9.1.2.6 Effect of Frequency
        7. 9.1.2.7 Effect of Ground Resistance
    2. 9.2 Ground Resistance
      1. 9.2.1 Ground Resistance of Objects
      2. 9.2.2 Measuring Ground Resistance of Objects
      3. 9.2.3 Ground Resistance of People
    3. 9.3 Touch and Step Potentials
      1. 9.3.1 Touch Potential
      2. 9.3.2 Step Potential
    4. 9.4 Electric Safety at Home
      1. 9.4.1 Neutral versus Ground
        1. 9.4.1.1 Grounding Chassis
        2. 9.4.1.2 Bonding Chassis to Neutral
        3. 9.4.1.3 Grounding Chassis and Bonding Ground to Neutral
      2. 9.4.2 Dwelling Distribution Circuits
      3. 9.4.3 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
      4. 9.4.4 Neutral Integrity
      5. 9.4.5 World’s Residential Grounding Practices
    5. 9.5 Low Frequency Magnetic Field and Its Health Effects
      1. 9.5.1 Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields
      2. 9.5.2 Biological Effects of Magnetic Field
      3. 9.5.3 Standards for Magnetic Field
    6. Exercises
  13. Chapter 10 - Power Electronics
    1. 10.1 Power Electronic Devices
      1. 10.1.1 Solid-State Diodes
      2. 10.1.2 Transistors
        1. 10.1.2.1 Bipolar Junction Transistor
        2. 10.1.2.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
      3. 10.1.3 Thyristors
        1. 10.1.3.1 Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
        2. 10.1.3.2 Silicon Diode for Alternating Current
      4. 10.1.4 Hybrid Power Electronic Devices
        1. 10.1.4.1 Darlington Transistor
        2. 10.1.4.2 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
    2. 10.2 Solid-State Switching Circuits
      1. 10.2.1 AC/DC Converters
        1. 10.2.1.1 Rectifier Circuits
        2. 10.2.1.2 Voltage-Controlled Circuits
        3. 10.2.1.3 Constant-Current Circuits
        4. 10.2.1.4 Three-Phase Circuits
      2. 10.2.2 DC/DC Converters
        1. 10.2.2.1 Buck Converter
        2. 10.2.2.2 Boost Converter
        3. 10.2.2.3 Buck–Boost Converter
      3. 10.2.3 DC/AC Converters
        1. 10.2.3.1 Single-Phase DC/AC Converter
        2. 10.2.3.2 Three-Phase DC/AC Converter
        3. 10.2.3.3 Pulse Width Modulation
      4. 10.2.4 AC/AC Converters
    3. Exercises
  14. Chapter 11 - Transformers
    1. 11.1 Theory of Operation
      1. 11.1.1 Voltage Ratio
      2. 11.1.2 Current Ratio
      3. 11.1.3 Reflected Load Impedance
      4. 11.1.4 Transformer Ratings
    2. 11.2 Multi-Winding Transformer
    3. 11.3 Autotransformer
    4. 11.4 Three-Phase Transformer
      1. 11.4.1 Three-Phase Transformer Ratings
        1. 11.4.1.1 Wye–Wye Transformer
        2. 11.4.1.2 Delta–Delta Transformer
        3. 11.4.1.3 Wye–Delta Transformer
      2. 11.4.2 Transformer Bank
    5. 11.5 Actual Transformer
      1. 11.5.1 Analysis of Actual Transformer
      2. 11.5.2 Transformer Efficiency
      3. 11.5.3 Voltage Regulation
    6. Exercises
  15. Chapter 12 - Electric Machines
    1. 12.1 Rotating Magnetic Field
    2. 12.2 Rotating Induction Motor
      1. 12.2.1 Rotation of Induction Motor
      2. 12.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor
      3. 12.2.3 Power Analysis
      4. 12.2.4 Speed–Torque Relationship
      5. 12.2.5 Starting Torque and Starting Current
      6. 12.2.6 Maximum Torque
      7. 12.2.7 Starting Methods
        1. 12.2.7.1 Voltage Reduction
        2. 12.2.7.2 Insertion of Resistance
    3. 12.3 Linear Induction Motor
      1. 12.3.1 Wheeled Linear Induction Motor
      2. 12.3.2 Magnetically Levitated Induction Motor
    4. 12.4 Induction Generator
    5. 12.5 Synchronous Generator
      1. 12.5.1 Synchronous Generator Connected to Infinite Bus
        1. 12.5.1.1 Power of Synchronous Generator
      2. 12.5.2 Synchronous Generator Connected to Infinite Bus through a Transmission Line
      3. 12.5.3 Increase Transmission Capacity
        1. 12.5.3.1 Increasing Transmission Capacity by Using Series Capacitor
        2. 12.5.3.2 Increasing Transmission Capacity by Using Parallel Lines
    6. 12.6 Synchronous Motor
      1. 12.6.1 Power of Synchronous Motor
      2. 12.6.2 Reactive Power Control and Synchronous Condenser
      3. 12.6.3 Motor Torque
    7. 12.7 Direct Current Motor
      1. 12.7.1 Theory of Operation of DC Motor
      2. 12.7.2 Starting of DC Motor
      3. 12.7.3 Speed Control of DC Motor
    8. 12.8 Stepper Motor
      1. 12.8.1 Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor
      2. 12.8.2 Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
      3. 12.8.3 Hybrid Stepper Motor
      4. 12.8.4 Holding State of Stepper Motor
      5. 12.8.5 Rotating Stepper Motor
    9. 12.9 Single-Phase Motors
      1. 12.9.1 Split-Phase Motors
      2. 12.9.2 Capacitor Starting Motors
      3. 12.9.3 Shaded-Pole Motors
    10. Exercises
  16. Chapter 13 - Power Quality
    1. 13.1 Voltage Problems
      1. 13.1.1 Voltage Flickers
      2. 13.1.2 Voltage Sag
    2. 13.2 Harmonic Problems
      1. 13.2.1 Harmonic Distortion of Electric Loads
      2. 13.2.2 Resonance due to Harmonics
      3. 13.2.3 Effect of Harmonics on Transmission Lines and Cables
      4. 13.2.4 Effect of Harmonics on Capacitor Banks
      5. 13.2.5 Effect of Harmonics on Electric Machines
      6. 13.2.6 Effect of Harmonics on Electric Power
      7. 13.2.7 Effect of Harmonics on Communications
    3. Exercises
  17. Chapter 14 - Power Grid and Blackouts
    1. 14.1 Topology of Power Systems
      1. 14.1.1 Enhancing Power System Reliability by Adding Transmission Lines
      2. 14.1.2 Enhancing Power System Reliability by Adding Generation
    2. 14.2 Analysis of Power Networks
    3. 14.3 Electric Energy Demand
    4. 14.4 Trading Electric Energy
    5. 14.5 World Wide Web of Power
    6. 14.6 Anatomy of Blackouts
      1. 14.6.1 Balance of Electric Power
      2. 14.6.2 Balance of Electrical and Mechanical Powers
        1. 14.6.2.1 Control Actions for Decreased Demand
        2. 14.6.2.2 Control Actions for Increased Demand
    7. 14.7 Blackout Scenarios
      1. 14.7.1 Great Northeast Blackout of 1965
      2. 14.7.2 Great Blackout of 1977
      3. 14.7.3 Great Blackout of 2003
    8. Exercises
  18. Chapter 15 - Future Power Systems
    1. 15.1 Smart Grid
      1. 15.1.1 Intelligent Monitoring
      2. 15.1.2 Smart House
      3. 15.1.3 Self-Diagnosis and Self-Healing
    2. 15.2 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
    3. 15.3 Alternative Resources
    4. 15.4 Less Polluting Power Plants
    5. 15.5 Distributed Generation
    6. 15.6 Power Electronics
    7. 15.7 Enhanced Reliability
    8. 15.8 Intelligent Operation, Maintenance, and Training
    9. 15.9 Space Power Plants
    10. Exercises
  19. Appendix A: Units and Symbols
  20. Appendix B: Conversions
  21. Appendix C: Key Parameters
  22. Appendix D: Inductors
  23. Appendix E: Key Integrals