O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Electrical Applications 2

Book Description

Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to the next section. At the ends of chapters, further problems are provided for consolidation and self-testing; where these have numerical answers, they may be found at the end of the book. In a subject such as this, many problems ask for explanations and descriptions and here the answers must be sought in the text. When dealing with a descriptive question, a good diagram almost always helps to give a clear answer and saves many words of explanation. The book aims to promote this approach by the use of over 170 figures throughout the eight chapters.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Electrical Applications
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Table of Contents
  5. PREFACE
  6. CHAPTER 1. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    1. Synchronous generators
    2. Economics of generation and transmission
    3. Overhead lines
    4. Comparison between overhead lines and underground cables
    5. Switchgear, definitions and uses
    6. Substation layout and equipment
    7. The three-phase system
    8. Industrial installations
    9. Distribution systems
    10. Distributor calculations
    11. Problems for Section 1
  7. CHAPTER 2. REGULATIONS
    1. Safety and regulations
    2. The Electricity Supply Regulations
    3. Electricity (Factories Act) Special Regulations
    4. Substations and transformers
    5. The Institution of Electrical Engineers' Regulations for Electrical Installations
    6. The Health and Safety at Work Act
    7. Comparison between the scopes of the regulations
    8. Problems for Section 2
  8. CHAPTER 3. TARIFFS AND POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
    1. Generation and transmission costs
    2. Power factor
    3. Maximum demand
    4. Diversity factor
    5. Load factor
    6. Cost of electrical energy
    7. Problems for Section 3
  9. CHAPTER 4. MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY
    1. Conductor materials for overhead lines and underground cables
    2. Performance of insulating materials
    3. Insulating materials for cables
    4. Cable construction
    5. Materials used in electronic circuits
    6. Conductor screening and coaxial cable
    7. Printed circuits
    8. Circuit damage due to overcurrents
    9. Heating of cables
    10. Permitted volt-drops in cables
    11. Effect of ambient temperature on rating
    12. Cables in ducts or in close proximity
    13. Heat sinks
    14. The insulation of overhead lines
    15. Eddy current and hysteresis losses
    16. Magnetic materials
    17. Minimisation of losses
    18. Permanent magnets
    19. Magnetic screening
    20. Problems for Section 4
  10. CHAPTER 5. TRANSFORMERS
    1. Principle of action of the transformer
    2. EMF equation
    3. The single-phase transformer
    4. The three-phase transformer
    5. Transformer cooling
    6. The auto-transformer
    7. Advantages of the auto-transformer over the double-wound transformer
    8. Disadvantages of the auto-transformer
    9. Current transformers
    10. Voltage or potential transformers
    11. Measurement of power and power factor
    12. Problems for Section 5
  11. CHAPTER 6. DC MACHINES
    1. Principle of action
    2. Power, force and torque
    3. Fleming's rules
    4. The action of the commutator
    5. The ring-wound armature
    6. The lap winding
    7. The wave winding
    8. The EMF and speed equations
    9. DC machine connections
    10. The DC motor
    11. DC motor starters
    12. The DC generator
    13. Armature reaction
    14. Losses in DC machines
    15. The power flow diagram
    16. Problems for Section 6
  12. CHAPTER 7. ILLUMINATION
    1. Lighting standards
    2. Luminance and luminous intensity
    3. The lumen and the steradian
    4. The inverse square law
    5. The cosine law
    6. The polar diagram
    7. Reflection and refraction of light
    8. Use of the polar diagram
    9. Indirect illumination of a surface
    10. Types of lamp
    11. Types of luminaire
    12. Daylighting
    13. Problems for Section 7
    14. CHAPTER 8. FUSE PROTECTION
    15. Fault level
    16. Fuse protection
    17. Operation of fuses
    18. The semi-enclosed rewireable fuse
    19. The high rupturing capacity (HRC) fuse
    20. Fuse characteristics
    21. Problems for Section 8
  13. SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
    1. Section 1
    2. Section 3
    3. Section 4
    4. Section 5
    5. Section 6
    6. Section 7
    7. Section 8
  14. INDEX