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Electrical Calculations and Guidelines for Generating Station and Industrial Plants

Book Description

"This is really a practical, hands-on book for the working engineer."

—Phillip Wheeler, former Southern California Edison supervising electrical apparatus engineer and regional IEEE PES/IAS leader

A very helpful tool for solving circuit protection problems, Electrical Calculations and Guidelines for Generating Stations and Industrial Plants presents and simplifies the theory and 132 calculations that electrical engineers typically need to understand in order to support operations, maintenance, and betterment projects for generating stations and other large industrial facilities. The book begins with a cursory review or refresher of basic electrical theory. It then provides additional insights into electrical theory and sets the conventions that will be utilized throughout the remainder of the book.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Author
  9. 1 The Basics
    1. 1.1 Three-Phase History
    2. 1.2 Three-Phase System Advantages
    3. 1.3 Theory
    4. 1.4 Magnetism
    5. 1.5 Voltage and Current
    6. 1.6 Resistance
    7. 1.7 Inductance
    8. 1.8 Capacitance
    9. 1.9 Circuits
    10. 1.10 Time Constants
    11. 1.11 Reactance
    12. 1.12 Series Impedance
    13. 1.13 Parallel Impedance
    14. 1.14 Transformers
    15. 1.15 Electrical Systems
    16. 1.16 Generating Station Electrical Configurations
    17. 1.17 Three-Phase Basics
    18. 1.18 Power Transformer Connections
    19. 1.19 Instrument Transformer Connections
    20. 1.20 Bibliography
  10. 2 Electrical Studies
    1. 2.1 Conversions
      1. 2.1.1 Ohmic
      2. 2.1.2 Megavolt-Amps (MVA)
    2. 2.2 Transformer Tap Optimization
    3. 2.3 Conductor Parameters
      1. 2.3.1 Buses
      2. 2.3.2 Insulated Cable
      3. 2.3.3 Overhead Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Cable
    4. 2.4 Study Accuracy
    5. 2.5 Voltage Studies
      1. 2.5.1 Bus Voltage Drop
      2. 2.5.2 Line Voltage Drop
      3. 2.5.3 Capacitive Voltage Rise
      4. 2.5.4 Collapsing Delta
    6. 2.6 Power Transfer Calculations
    7. 2.7 Two-Generator System
    8. 2.8 Ohmic Short Circuit Calculations
      1. 2.8.1 No Transformer
      2. 2.8.2 Parallel Sources
    9. 2.9 The Per-Unit System
      1. 2.9.1 Basic Formulas
      2. 2.9.2 Corrected Voltage Base
      3. 2.9.3 Per-Unit Z to Amps
      4. 2.9.4 Amps to Per-Unit R and X
      5. 2.9.5 New MVA Base
      6. 2.9.6 Per Unit to Ohms
      7. 2.9.7 Amps to Per-Unit Z
    10. 2.10 Per-Unit Short Circuit Calculations
      1. 2.10.1 Transformer Short Circuits
      2. 2.10.2 Transformer Three-Phase and Phase-to-Phase Fault Procedures
      3. 2.10.3 Sequence Impedances
      4. 2.10.4 Transformer Ground Fault Procedure
      5. 2.10.5 Alternative Ground Fault Procedure
      6. 2.10.6 Generator Three-Phase Short Circuits
      7. 2.10.7 Generator De-Excitation
      8. 2.10.8 Motor Contribution
    11. 2.11 Bibliography
  11. 3 Auxiliary System Protection
    1. 3.1 Switchgear Overcurrent Coordination
    2. 3.2 Overcurrent Schematic
    3. 3.3 Current Transformer (CT) Safety Ground
    4. 3.4 Motor Overcurrent
    5. 3.5 Motor Control Center (MCC) Source Overcurrent
    6. 3.6 Bus Tie Overcurrent
    7. 3.7 Transformer Secondary Side Overcurrent
    8. 3.8 Transformer Primary Side Overcurrent
    9. 3.9 Residual Ground Protection
    10. 3.10 High Impedance Grounding
      1. 3.10.1 Induced Voltages
      2. 3.10.2 Transient Voltage Mitigation
      3. 3.10.3 Primary to Secondary Capacitive Coupling
      4. 3.10.4 Neutral Grounding
      5. 3.10.5 Grounded Wye–Broken Delta Grounding
    11. 3.11 Transformer High-Speed Protection
      1. 3.11.1 Current Differential Protection
    12. 3.12 Bus Transfer Schemes
    13. 3.13 Bibliography
  12. 4 Generator Protection
    1. 4.1 Generator Relay Data
    2. 4.2 High Voltage Switchyard Configurations
    3. 4.3 High Voltage Switchyard Protection Concerns
    4. 4.4 Generator Protective Functions
      1. 4.4.1 Backup Impedance (21)
      2. 4.4.2 Volts/Hz (24)
      3. 4.4.3 Sync Check (25)
      4. 4.4.4 Reverse Power (32)
      5. 4.4.5 Loss of Field (40)
      6. 4.4.6 Negative Phase Sequence (46)
      7. 4.4.7 Inadvertent Energization (50/27)
      8. 4.4.8 Breaker Failure (50BF)
      9. 4.4.9 Pole Flashover (50NF)
      10. 4.4.10 Overvoltage (59)
      11. 4.4.11 Loss of Potential (60)
      12. 4.4.12 Stator Ground (64)
      13. 4.4.13 Out of Step (78)
      14. 4.4.14 Overfrequency and Underfrequency (81)
      15. 4.4.15 Lockout Relay (86)
      16. 4.4.16 Generator Differential (87)
    5. 4.5 Bibliography
  13. 5 Electrical Apparatus Calculations
    1. 5.1 Buses
    2. 5.2 Cable
      1. 5.2.1 Withstand Seconds
      2. 5.2.2 Fusion Seconds
      3. 5.2.3 Line Loss
    3. 5.3 Switchgear Circuit Breakers
      1. 5.3.1 Alternating Current (AC) Hi-Pot Testing
      2. 5.3.2 Circuit Breaker Duty
    4. 5.4 Generators
      1. 5.4.1 Acceptance Direct Current (DC) Hi-Pot
      2. 5.4.2 Routine DC Hi-Pot
      3. 5.4.3 Temperatures
      4. 5.4.4 X/R Ratio
    5. 5.5. Metering
      1. 5.5.1 Theory
      2. 5.5.2 Watt Demand
      3. 5.5.3 Watts
    6. 5.6 Motors
      1. 5.6.1 Acceptance DC Hi-Pot
      2. 5.6.2 Routine DC Hi-Pot
      3. 5.6.3 Locked Rotor Amps
      4. 5.6.4 Unbalanced Voltages
      5. 5.6.5 X/R Ratio
      6. 5.6.6 Switching Transients
      7. 5.6.7 Reliability
      8. 5.6.8 Voltage Drop
    7. 5.7 Transformers
      1. 5.7.1 Current Transformer Burden
      2. 5.7.2 Power Transformer Losses
      3. 5.7.3 Power Transformer X/R Ratio
    8. 5.8 Bibliography
  14. 6 Electrical Operating Guidelines
    1. 6.1 Operation of Large Generators
      1. 6.1.1 Purpose
      2. 6.1.2 Startup Operation
      3. 6.1.3 Shutdown Operation
      4. 6.1.4 On-Line Operation
      5. 6.1.5 System Separation
      6. 6.1.6 Field Grounds
      7. 6.1.7 Voltage Regulators
      8. 6.1.8 Moisture Intrusion
      9. 6.1.9 Routine Operator Inspections
      10. 6.1.10 Generator Protection
        1. 6.1.10.1 Differential (87)
        2. 6.1.10.2 Stator Ground (64) or (59G)
        3. 6.1.10.3 Bus Ground Detectors (64B) or (59BG)
        4. 6.1.10.4 Loss of Excitation (40)
        5. 6.1.10.5 Overexcitation (24)
        6. 6.1.10.6 Reverse Power (32)
        7. 6.1.10.7 Negative Phase Sequence (46)
        8. 6.1.10.8 Backup Impedance (21) or Voltage Restraint Overcurrent (51V)
        9. 6.1.10.9 Out of Step (78)
        10. 6.1.10.10 Overfrequency and Underfrequency (81)
        11. 6.1.10.11 Sync Check (25)
        12. 6.1.10.12 Inadvertent Energization (50/27)
        13. 6.1.10.13 Pole Flashover (50NF)
        14. 6.1.10.14 Main and Auxiliary Transformer Differential (87)
        15. 6.1.10.15 Feeder Differential (87)
        16. 6.1.10.16 Overall Unit Differential (87)
        17. 6.1.10.17 Auxiliary and Main Transformer Sudden Pressure (63)
        18. 6.1.10.18 Zone 1 Impedance (21)
        19. 6.1.10.19 Breaker Failure (50BF)
        20. 6.1.10.20 Transformer Overcurrent (51)
        21. 6.1.10.21 DC Low Voltage (27DC)
        22. 6.1.10.22 DC High Voltage (59DC)
    2. 6.2 Operation of Large Power Transformers
      1. 6.2.1 Purpose
      2. 6.2.2 Operator Inspections
      3. 6.2.3 Sudden Pressure Relays
      4. 6.2.4 Transformer Differential or Sudden Pressure Relay Operations
      5. 6.2.5 Emergency Cooling and Loading
      6. 6.2.6 Oil Pump Operation
    3. 6.3 Operation of Large Electric Motors
      1. 6.3.1 Purpose
      2. 6.3.2 Operator Inspections
      3. 6.3.3 Starting Duty
      4. 6.3.4 Heaters
      5. 6.3.5 Protection
        1. 6.3.5.1 Instantaneous Phase Overcurrent Tripping
        2. 6.3.5.2 Time Phase Overcurrent Tripping
        3. 6.3.5.3 Feeder Ground Tripping
    4. 6.4 Operation of Auxiliary System Switchgear
      1. 6.4.1 Purpose
      2. 6.4.2 Operator Inspections
      3. 6.4.3 Protection
        1. 6.4.3.1 Load Feeder Overcurrent Protection
        2. 6.4.3.2 Load Feeder Ground Protection
        3. 6.4.3.3 Source and Tie Overcurrent Protection
        4. 6.4.3.4 High Side Source Transformer Overcurrent Protection
        5. 6.4.3.5 Source and Tie Residual Ground Protection
        6. 6.4.3.6 Source Transformer Neutral Ground Protection
        7. 6.4.3.7 Alarm-Only Ground Schemes
      4. 6.4.4 Switchgear Bus Transfers
        1. 6.4.4.1 Paralleling Two Sources
        2. 6.4.4.2 Drop Pickup Transfers
        3. 6.4.4.3 Automatic Bus Transfer Schemes
    5. 6.6 Bibliography
  15. 7 Electrical Maintenance Guidelines
    1. 7.1 Generator Electrical Maintenance
      1. 7.1.1 Purpose
      2. 7.1.2 Routine On-Line Slip-Ring Brush-Rigging Inspections
      3. 7.1.3 Inspection of Rotor Grounding Brushes and Bearing Insulation
      4. 7.1.4 Routine Unit Outages
      5. 7.1.5 Overhauls
      6. 7.1.6 Vibration
    2. 7.2 Transformer Electrical Maintenance
      1. 7.2.1 Purpose
      2. 7.2.2 Inspections
      3. 7.2.3 Transformer Testing
      4. 7.2.4 Avoiding Pyrolitic Growth in Tap Changers
      5. 7.2.5 Internal Inspection
      6. 7.2.6 Electrostatic Voltage Transfer
      7. 7.2.7 Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA)
      8. 7.2.8 Dielectric Breakdown Test
      9. 7.2.9 Insulators and Bushings
      10. 7.2.10 Sudden-Pressure Relays
      11. 7.2.11 Spare Transformer Maintenance
      12. 7.2.12 Phasing Test
    3. 7.3 Motor Electrical Maintenance
      1. 7.3.1 Purpose
      2. 7.3.2 Electrical Protection
        1. 7.3.2.1 Instantaneous Phase Overcurrent Tripping (50)
        2. 7.3.2.2 Time Phase Overcurrent Tripping (51)
        3. 7.3.2.3 Feeder Ground Tripping (51G)
      3. 7.3.3 Testing
      4. 7.3.4 Internal Inspections
      5. 7.3.5 On-Line and Off-Line Routine Inspections
      6. 7.3.6 Motor Monitoring and Diagnostics
    4. 7.4 Switchgear Circuit Breaker Maintenance
      1. 7.4.1 Purpose
      2. 7.4.2 General—Switchgear Circuit Breakers (200 Volts to15 kV)
      3. 7.4.3 Inspection and Testing Frequencies
      4. 7.4.4 Mechanical Inspection
      5. 7.4.5 Electrical Testing
      6. 7.4.6 Operational Tests
      7. 7.4.7 Cubicle Inspection
      8. 7.4.8 Rack-In Inspection
      9. 7.4.9 Generator DC Field Breakers
    5. 7.5 Insulation Testing of Electrical Apparatus
      1. 7.5.1 Purpose
      2. 7.5.2 Apparatus 440 Volts and Higher
      3. 7.5.3 Normal Routine Maintenance
      4. 7.5.4 Avoiding a Forced Outage or Load Restriction
      5. 7.5.5 DC High Potential Testing
      6. 7.5.6 Generator and Motor Stator Winding Test Values
      7. 7.5.7 Generator Rotor Field Test Values
      8. 7.5.8 Generator Neutral Buses or Cables
      9. 7.5.9 Cable 5 kV and Higher
    6. 7.6 Bus and Motor Control Center (MCC) Maintenance
      1. 7.6.1 Purpose
      2. 7.6.2 Bus Inspections
      3. 7.6.3 Bus Testing
      4. 7.6.4 MCC Position Inspections
      5. 7.6.5 MCC Position Testing
    7. 7.7. Protective Relay Testing
      1. 7.7.1 Purpose
      2. 7.7.2 General
      3. 7.7.3 Testing Schedule (440 Volts to 765 kV)
      4. 7.7.4 Relay Routine Tests
      5. 7.7.5 Primary Overall Test of Current Transformers (CTs)
      6. 7.7.6 Documentation
      7. 7.7.7 Multifunction Digital Relay Concerns
    8. 7.8 Battery Inspection and Maintenance
      1. 7.8.1 Purpose
      2. 7.8.2 General
      3. 7.8.3 Floating Charges
      4. 7.8.4 Inspection Schedules
      5. 7.8.5 Safety Precautions
      6. 7.8.6 Operation and Troubleshooting
    9. 7.9 Personnel Safety Grounds
      1. 7.9.1 Purpose
      2. 7.9.2 General
      3. 7.9.3 Special Grounding Considerations
      4. 7.9.4 Maintenance
      5. 7.9.5 Electrical Testing
    10. 7.10 Generator Automatic Voltage Regulators and Power System Stabilizers
      1. 7.10.1 Purpose
      2. 7.10.2 Automatic Voltage Regulators
      3. 7.10.3 Power System Stabilizers
      4. 7.10.4 Certification Tests
      5. 7.10.5 Routine Tests
      6. 7.10.6 Generating Station Responsibilities
      7. 7.10.7 Excitation Engineering Responsibilities
    11. 7.11 Bibliography
  16. Index