Integration of distributed energy resources (DER) to the grid

K. Kauhaniemi,     University of Vaasa, Finland


This chapter discusses the technical issues of successful integration of distributed energy resources (DER) to the grid. The effects of DER on the power system operation and protection are first identified, and then the technical requirements arising from these effects are introduced. Also the relevant grid codes and standards are discussed.

Key words

distributed generation

power systems

grid interconnection

4.1 Introduction

Interest in small scale renewable energy sources has increased rapidly over the last 15 years. The main reason for this is concern about global climate change and the need to reduce the CO2 emissions ...

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