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Electrochemical Engineering

Book Description

A Comprehensive Reference for Electrochemical Engineering Theory and Application

From chemical and electronics manufacturing, to hybrid vehicles, energy storage, and beyond, electrochemical engineering touches many industries—any many lives—every day. As energy conservation becomes of central importance, so too does the science that helps us reduce consumption, reduce waste, and lessen our impact on the planet. Electrochemical Engineering provides a reference for scientists and engineers working with electrochemical processes, and a rigorous, thorough text for graduate students and upper-division undergraduates.

Merging theoretical concepts with widespread application, this book is designed to provide critical knowledge in a real-world context. Beginning with the fundamental principles underpinning the field, the discussion moves into industrial and manufacturing processes that blend central ideas to provide an advanced understanding while explaining observable results. Fully-worked illustrations simplify complex processes, and end-of chapter questions help reinforce essential knowledge.

With in-depth coverage of both the practical and theoretical, this book is both a thorough introduction to and a useful reference for the field. Rigorous in depth, yet grounded in relevance, Electrochemical Engineering

  • Introduces basic principles from the standpoint of practical application
  • Explores the kinetics of electrochemical reactions with discussion on thermodynamics, reaction fundamentals, and transport
  • Covers battery and fuel cell characteristics, mechanisms, and system design
  • Delves into the design and mechanics of hybrid and electric vehicles, including regenerative braking, start-stop hybrids, and fuel cell systems
  • Examines electrodeposition, redox-flow batteries, electrolysis, regenerative fuel cells, semiconductors, and other applications of electrochemical engineering principles

Overlapping chemical engineering, chemistry, material science, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, electrochemical engineering covers a diverse array of phenomena explained by some of the important scientific discoveries of our time. Electrochemical Engineering provides the critical understanding required to work effectively with these processes as they become increasingly central to global sustainability.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. List of Symbols
    1. Greek Symbols
    2. Subscripts and Superscripts
  6. About the Companion Website
  7. Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Principles
    1. 1.1 Electrochemical Cells
    2. 1.2 Characteristics of Electrochemical Reactions
    3. 1.3 Importance of Electrochemical Systems
    4. 1.4 Scientific Units, Constants, Conventions
    5. 1.5 Faraday's Law
    6. 1.6 Faradaic Efficiency
    7. 1.7 Current Density
    8. 1.8 Potential and OHM'S Law
    9. 1.9 Electrochemical Systems: Example
    10. Closure
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  8. Chapter 2: Cell Potential and Thermodynamics
    1. 2.1 Electrochemical Reactions
    2. 2.2 Cell Potential
    3. 2.3 Expression for Cell Potential
    4. 2.4 Standard Potentials
    5. 2.5 Effect of Temperature on Standard Potential
    6. 2.6 Simplified Activity Correction
    7. 2.7 Use of the Cell Potential
    8. 2.8 Equilibrium Constants
    9. 2.9 Pourbaix Diagrams
    10. 2.10 Cells with a Liquid Junction
    11. 2.11 Reference Electrodes
    12. 2.12 Equilibrium at Electrode Interface
    13. 2.13 Potential in Solution Due to Charge: Debye–Hückel Theory
    14. 2.14 Activities and Activity Coefficients
    15. 2.15 Estimation of Activity Coefficients
    16. Closure
    17. Further Reading
    18. Problems
  9. Chapter 3: Electrochemical Kinetics
    1. 3.1 Double Layer
    2. 3.2 Impact of Potential on Reaction Rate
    3. 3.3 Use of the Butler–Volmer Kinetic Expression
    4. 3.4 Reaction Fundamentals
    5. 3.5 Simplified forms of the Butler–Volmer Equation
    6. 3.6 Direct Fitting of the Butler–Volmer Equation
    7. 3.7 The Influence of Mass Transfer on the Reaction Rate
    8. 3.8 Use of Kinetic Expressions in Full Cells
    9. 3.9 Current Efficiency
    10. Closure
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  10. Chapter 4: Transport
    1. 4.1 Fick's Law
    2. 4.2 Nernst–Planck Equation
    3. 4.3 Conservation of Material
    4. 4.4 Transference Numbers, Mobilities, and Migration
    5. 4.5 Convective Mass Transfer
    6. 4.6 Concentration Overpotential
    7. 4.7 Current Distribution
    8. 4.8 Membrane Transport
    9. Closure
    10. Notes
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  11. Chapter 5: Electrode Structures and Configurations
    1. 5.1 Mathematical Description of Porous Electrodes
    2. 5.2 Characterization of Porous Electrodes
    3. 5.3 Impact of Porous Electrode on Transport
    4. 5.4 Current Distributions in Porous Electrodes
    5. 5.5 The Gas–Liquid Interface in Porous Electrodes
    6. 5.6 Three-Phase Electrodes
    7. 5.7 Electrodes with Flow
    8. Closure
    9. Further Reading
    10. Problems
  12. Chapter 6: Electroanalytical Techniques and Analysis of Electrochemical Systems
    1. 6.1 Electrochemical Cells, Instrumentation, and Some Practical Issues
    2. 6.2 Overview
    3. 6.3 Step Change in Potential or Current for a Semi-Infinite Planar Electrode in a Stagnant Electrolyte
    4. 6.4 Electrode Kinetics and Double-Layer Charging
    5. 6.5 Cyclic Voltammetry
    6. 6.6 Stripping Analyses
    7. 6.7 Electrochemical Impedance
    8. 6.8 Rotating Disk Electrodes
    9. 6.9 iR Compensation
    10. 6.10 Microelectrodes
    11. Closure
    12. Further Reading
    13. Problems
  13. Chapter 7: Battery Fundamentals
    1. 7.1 Components of a Cell
    2. 7.2 Classification of Batteries and Cell Chemistries
    3. 7.3 Theoretical Capacity and State of Charge
    4. 7.4 Cell Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance
    5. 7.5 Ragone Plots
    6. 7.6 Heat Generation
    7. 7.7 Efficiency of Secondary Cells
    8. 7.8 Charge Retention and Self-Discharge
    9. 7.9 Capacity Fade in Secondary Cells
    10. Closure
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  14. Chapter 8: Battery Applications: Cell and Battery Pack Design
    1. 8.1 Introduction to Battery Design
    2. 8.2 Battery Layout Using a Specific Cell Design
    3. 8.3 Scaling of Cells to Adjust Capacity
    4. 8.4 Electrode and Cell Design to Achieve Rate Capability
    5. 8.5 Cell Construction
    6. 8.6 Charging of Batteries
    7. 8.7 Use of Resistance to Characterize Battery Peformance
    8. 8.8 Battery Management
    9. 8.9 Thermal Management Systems
    10. 8.10 Mechanical Considerations
    11. Closure
    12. Further Reading
    13. Problems
  15. Chapter 9: Fuel-Cell Fundamentals
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Types of Fuel Cells
    3. 9.3 Current–Voltage Characteristics and Polarizations
    4. 9.4 Effect of Operating Conditions and Maximum Power
    5. 9.5 Electrode Structure
    6. 9.6 Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells
    7. 9.7 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    8. Closure
    9. Further Reading
    10. Problems
  16. Chapter 10: Fuel-Cell Stack and System Design
    1. 10.1 Introduction and Overview of Systems Analysis
    2. 10.2 Basic Stack Design Concepts
    3. 10.3 Cell Stack Configurations
    4. 10.4 Basic Construction and Components
    5. 10.5 Utilization of Oxidant and Fuel
    6. 10.6 Flow-Field Design
    7. 10.7 Water and Thermal Management
    8. 10.8 Structural–Mechanical Considerations
    9. 10.9 Case Study
    10. Closure
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  17. Chapter 11: Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors
    1. 11.1 Capacitor Introduction
    2. 11.2 Electrical Double-Layer Capacitance
    3. 11.3 Current–Voltage Relationship for Capacitors
    4. 11.4 Porous Edlc Electrodes
    5. 11.5 Impedance Analysis of EDLCs
    6. 11.6 Full Cell Edlc Analysis
    7. 11.7 Power and Energy Capabilities
    8. 11.8 Cell Design, Practical Operation, and Electrochemical Capacitor Performance
    9. 11.9 Pseudo-Capacitance
    10. Closure
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  18. Chapter 12: Energy Storage and Conversion for Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles
    1. 12.1 Why Electric and Hybrid-Electric Systems?
    2. 12.2 Driving Schedules and Power Demand in Vehicles
    3. 12.3 Regenerative Braking
    4. 12.4 Battery Electrical Vehicle
    5. 12.5 Hybrid Vehicle Architectures
    6. 12.6 Start–Stop Hybrid
    7. 12.7 Batteries for Full-Hybrid Electric Vehicles
    8. 12.8 Fuel-Cell Hybrid Systems for Vehicles
    9. Closure
    10. Note
    11. Further Reading
    12. Problems
  19. Chapter 13: Electrodeposition
    1. 13.1 Overview
    2. 13.2 Faraday's Law and Deposit Thickness
    3. 13.3 Electrodeposition Fundamentals
    4. 13.4 Formation of Stable Nuclei
    5. 13.5 Nucleation Rates
    6. 13.6 Growth of Nuclei
    7. 13.7 Deposit Morphology
    8. 13.8 Additives
    9. 13.9 Impact of Current Distribution
    10. 13.10 Impact of Side Reactions
    11. 13.11 Resistive Substrates
    12. Closure
    13. Further Reading
    14. Problems
  20. Chapter 14: Industrial Electrolysis, Electrochemical Reactors, and Redox-Flow Batteries
    1. 14.1 Overview of Industrial Electrolysis
    2. 14.2 Performance Measures
    3. 14.3 Voltage Losses and the Polarization Curve
    4. 14.4 Design of Electrochemical Reactors for Industrial Applications
    5. 14.5 Examples of Industrial Electrolytic Processes
    6. 14.6 Thermal Management and Cell Operation
    7. 14.7 Electrolytic Processes for a Sustainable Future
    8. 14.8 Redox-Flow Batteries
    9. Closure
    10. Further Reading
    11. Problems
  21. Chapter 15: Semiconductor Electrodes and Photoelectrochemical Cells
    1. 15.1 Semiconductor Basics
    2. 15.2 Energy Scales
    3. 15.3 Semiconductor–Electrolyte Interface
    4. 15.4 Current Flow in the Dark
    5. 15.5 Light Absorption
    6. 15.6 Photoelectrochemical Effects
    7. 15.7 Open-Circuit Voltage for Illuminated Electrodes
    8. 15.8 Photoelectrochemical Cells
    9. Closure
    10. Further Reading
    11. Problems
  22. Chapter 16: Corrosion
    1. 16.1 Corrosion Fundamentals
    2. 16.2 Thermodynamics of Corrosion Systems
    3. 16.3 Corrosion Rate for Uniform Corrosion
    4. 16.4 Localized Corrosion
    5. 16.5 Corrosion Protection
    6. Closure
    7. Further Reading
    8. Problems
  23. Appendix A: Electrochemical Reactions and Standard Potentials
  24. Appendix B: Fundamental Constants
  25. Appendix C: Thermodynamic Data
  26. Appendix D: Mechanics of Materials
    1. D.1 Stress and Strain
    2. D.2 Thermal Expansion
    3. 4.3 Creep and Fracture
    4. Further Reading
  27. Index
  28. End User License Agreement