In addition to the conduction tests, the common immunity or emission tests required in electromagnetic compatibility involve the production of electric fields of an amplitude higher than 1 V/m, or on the contrary the measurement of low fields, whose amplitude can be close to 100 µV/m.
The use of the electromagnetic plane wave concept offers experimenters the means to qualify most of the devices as tests recommended by international standards or conceived for specific applications. The plane wave is based on a theoretical ideal stating that no experiment can rigorously reproduce. Paradoxically, we will see in this first chapter and the subsequent stages of the book, that it is the confrontation of the plane wave concept that allows us quite frequently to appreciate the reproducibility criteria of a test.
The estimate of the error margins is thus the major concern during the design of new test methods or during the improvement of the existing test methods.
These reasons have thus encouraged us to write the first section of this chapter about the theoretical concepts of plane waves. Although generally confused with the ray propagation adopted in geometrical optics methods, the plane wave has significantly different physical properties. The particularity of the plane wave is above all due to the polarization plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave. Another property ...