X-ray microbeam analysis of electromigration in copper interconnects
H. Zhang, Cascade Engineering Services Inc., USA
G.S. Cargill, III., Lehigh University, USA
Electromigration in Cu interconnect materials raises reliability issues and attention from microelectronics industries. Electromigration causes the formation of defects such as voids and hillocks, which can cause reliability problems such as opens or shorts. The formation of defects is associated with the evolution of strain/stress within the Cu interconnect materials. Measurements of strain/stress in Cu interconnects during electromigration advances the understanding of electromigration failure modes and helps in modeling electromigration mechanisms. In this ...