5

Voiding in copper interconnects during electromigration

C.L. Gan and M.K. Lim,     Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Abstract:

In this chapter, the void formation mechanism in copper interconnects is discussed. The void nucleation process is described, and the differences between aluminum and copper interconnects are highlighted. The void growth mechanism is presented, emphasizing the role that the copper/cap interface plays in electromigration. Immortality in copper interconnects is discussed in the context of no-void nucleation and void growth saturation.

Key words

void nucleation

void growth

immortality

Blech length

copper/cap interface

5.1 Introduction

Electromigration has remained a reliability issue today even though ...

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