L. Zhang, IBM System and Technology Group USA
J.W. Pyun, Samsung Electronics Korea
X. Lu, Intel Corporation USA
P.S. Ho, The University of Texas at Austin USA
The effect of scaling on the electromigration (EM) reliability of Cu interconnects is investigated. First the intrinsic effect owing to scaling of the via and line dimensions is examined based on the dominant mass transport at the Cu top interface under EM. This is followed by a discussion of the extrinsic effects of processing-induced defects. EM results and failure modes are reviewed for both upstream and downstream electron flows, and the EM behaviors of multi-linked structures ...