Y.C. Chan, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
M. Pecht, University of Maryland, USA
This review is devoted to four types of physical failure mechanisms in microelectronic devices for high-current density applications; those failures are electromigration (EM), Joule heating-induced failures, stress-related damage, and thermomigration (TM). In practice, some of these failure mechanisms occur together so that the real root cause cannot easily be detected and understood. Reliability designers need to be well informed to evaluate the electrical characteristics, thermal characteristics and mechanical strength for solder interconnects in advance. Recent progress in ...