Instrumentation systems generally consist of three major elements:

  1. An input device.
  2. A signal conditioning device.
  3. An output device.

The input device receives the quantity under measurement and delivers a proportional electrical signal to the signal conditioning device. Here the signal is amplified, filtered, or otherwise modified to a format, acceptable to the output device. The output device can be a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) or a recorder.

The input quantity for most instrumentation systems is non-electrical. However, in order ...

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