This appendix is designed to be a brief introduction to the formalisms behind the Elemental Design Patterns, the rho-calculus, or ρ-calculus. For those of you with an inclination for theory or research and who are interested in a more complete treatise, the following publications provide formal treatments of the topics. I hope you find them a suitable entry point to a richer world of programming possibilities. You may find it useful to refer back to Chapter 2 occasionally while reading this discussion.
• Martín Abadi and Luca Cardelli. A Theory of Objects. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996.
• Jason McC. Smith. SPQR: Formal Foundations and Practical Support for the Automated Detection of Design Patterns From Source Code. PhD thesis, ...