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Elementary Statistics Using SAS

Book Description

Bridging the gap between statistics texts and SAS documentation, Elementary Statistics Using SAS is written for those who want to perform analyses to solve problems. The first section of the book explains the basics of SAS data sets and shows how to use SAS for descriptive statistics and graphs. The second section discusses fundamental statistical concepts, including normality and hypothesis testing. The remaining sections of the book show analyses for comparing two groups, comparing multiple groups, fitting regression equations, and exploring contingency tables. For each analysis, author Sandra Schlotzhauer explains assumptions, statistical approach, and SAS methods and syntax, and makes conclusions from the results. Statistical methods covered include two-sample t-tests, paired-difference t-tests, analysis of variance, multiple comparison techniques, regression, regression diagnostics, and chi-square tests. Elementary Statistics Using SAS is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of Ramon Littell and Sandra Schlotzhauer's SAS System for Elementary Statistical Analysis.

This book is part of the SAS Press program.

Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Part 1 The Basics
    1. Chapter 1 Getting Started
      1. Introducing This Book
      2. Introducing SAS Software
      3. Summarizing the Structure of SAS Software
      4. Starting SAS
      5. Displaying a Simple Example
      6. Getting Help
      7. Exiting SAS
      8. Introducing Several SAS Statements
      9. Summary
    2. Chapter 2 Creating SAS Data Sets
      1. What Is a SAS Data Set?
      2. Understanding the SAS DATA Step
      3. Creating the Speeding Ticket Data Set
      4. Printing a Data Set
      5. Sorting a Data Set
      6. Summary
      7. Special Topics
    3. Chapter 3 Importing Data
      1. Opening an Existing SAS Data Set
      2. Reading Data from an Existing Text File
      3. Importing Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets
      4. Using the Import Wizard on a PC
      5. Introducing Advanced Features
      6. Summary
    4. Chapter 4 Summarizing Data
      1. Understanding Types of Variables
      2. Summarizing a Continuous Variable
      3. Creating Line Printer Plots for Continuous Variables
      4. Creating Histograms for Continuous Variables
      5. Creating Frequency Tables for All Variables
      6. Creating Bar Charts for All Variables
      7. Checking Data for Errors
      8. Summary
      9. Special Topic: Using ODS to Control Output Tables
  3. Part 2 Statistical Background
    1. Chapter 5 Understanding Fundamental Statistical Concepts
      1. Populations and Samples
      2. The Normal Distribution
      3. Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Methods
      4. Testing for Normality
      5. Building a Hypothesis Test
      6. Statistical and Practical Significance
      7. Summary
    2. Chapter 6 Estimating the Mean
      1. Using One Number to Estimate the Mean
      2. Effect of Sample Size
      3. Effect of Population Variability
      4. The Distribution of Sample Averages
      5. Getting Confidence Intervals for the Mean
      6. Summary
  4. Part 3 Comparing Groups
    1. Chapter 7 Comparing Paired Groups
      1. Deciding between Independent and Paired Groups
      2. Summarizing Data from Paired Groups
      3. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare Paired Groups
      4. Performing the Paired-Difference t-test
      5. Performing the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
      6. Summary
    2. Chapter 8 Comparing Two Independent Groups
      1. Deciding between Independent and Paired Groups
      2. Summarizing Data
      3. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare Two Independent Groups
      4. Performing the Two-Sample t-test
      5. Performing the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
      6. Summary
    3. Chapter 9 Comparing More Than Two Groups
      1. Summarizing Data from Multiple Groups
      2. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare More Than Two Groups
      3. Performing a One-Way ANOVA
      4. Analysis of Variance with Unequal Variances
      5. Summarizing PROC ANOVA
      6. Performing a Kruskal-Wallis Test
      7. Understanding Multiple Comparison Procedures
      8. Summarizing with an Example
      9. Summary
  5. Part 4 Fitting Lines to Data
    1. Chapter 10 Understanding Correlation and Regression
      1. Summarizing Multiple Continuous Variables
      2. Calculating Correlation Coefficients
      3. Performing Straight-Line Regression
      4. Fitting a Straight Line with PROC REG
      5. Fitting Curves
      6. Regression for Multiple Independent Variables
      7. Summary
      8. Special Topic: Line Printer Plots
    2. Chapter 11 Performing Basic Regression Diagnostics
      1. Concepts in Plotting Residuals
      2. Creating Residuals Plots for the Kilowatt Data
      3. Creating Residuals Plots for the Engine Data
      4. Looking for Outliers in the Data
      5. Investigating Lack of Fit
      6. Testing the Regression Assumption for Errors
      7. Summary
      8. Special Topic: Creating Diagnostic Plots with Traditional Graphics and Line Printer Plots
      9. Special Topic: Automatic ODS Graphics
  6. Part 5 Data in Summary Tables
    1. Chapter 12 Creating and Analyzing Contingency Tables
      1. Defining Contingency Tables
      2. Summarizing Raw Data in Tables
      3. Creating Contingency Tables from an Existing Summary Table
      4. Creating Contingency Tables for Several Variables
      5. Performing Tests for Independence
      6. Creating Measures of Association with Ordinal Variables
      7. Summarizing Analyses with PROC FREQ
      8. Summary
      9. Special Topic: ODS Graphics
  7. Appendix 1 Further Reading
  8. Appendix 2 Summary of SAS Elements and Chapters
  9. Appendix 3 Introducing the SAS Windowing Environment
  10. Appendix 4 Overview of SAS Enterprise Guide
  11. Index