Chapter 2

Circuit Fundamentals

2.1  Electrical Circuit

An electrical network is a collection of electrical elements that can include voltage sources, lines, connectors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches, controllers, and a host of other standard and special components. The circuit is a closed-loop electrical network that provides a return path for the current and that contains at least one active electronic component.

Electronic circuits are classified as analog, digital, or mixed-signal, the latter being a combination of the analog and digital types. Circuits contain discrete components often purchased off-the-shelf. These include but are not limited to resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, processors (such as microcontrollers), ...

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