Emerging Nanotechnologies for Manufacturing, 2nd Edition

Book description

In the second edition of Emerging Nanotechnologies for Manufacturing, an unrivalled team of international experts explores existing and emerging nanotechnologies as they transform large-scale manufacturing contexts in key sectors such as medicine, advanced materials, energy, and electronics. From their different perspectives, the contributors explore technologies and techniques as well as applications and how they transform those sectors.

With updated chapters and expanded coverage, the new edition of Emerging Nanotechnologies for Manufacturing reflects the latest developments in nanotechnologies for manufacturing and covers additional nanotechnologies applied in the medical fields, such as drug delivery systems. New chapters on graphene and smart precursors for novel nanomaterials are also added.

This important and in-depth guide will benefit a broad readership, from R&D scientists and engineers to venture capitalists.

  • Covers nanotechnology for manufacturing techniques and applications across a variety of industries
  • Explores the latest developments such as nanosuspensions and nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, graphene applications, and usage of smart precursors to develop nanomaterials
  • Proven reference guide written by leading experts in the field

Table of contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Emerging Nanotechnologies for Manufacturing
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents (1/2)
  5. Contents (2/2)
  6. Preface
  7. List of Contributors
  8. 1 Nanotechnology to Nanomanufacturing
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Approaches to Nanotechnology
    3. 1.3 Transition from Nanotechnology to Nanomanufacturing
      1. 1.3.1 Top-down approach
      2. 1.3.2 Bottom-up approach
    4. 1.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  9. 2 Gas phase nanofication: a strategy to impart fast response in sensors
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Proposed Rationale
    3. 2.3 Methods of Establishing the Desired Redox po2
    4. 2.4 Sample Preparation
      1. 2.4.1 Materials and processing
      2. 2.4.2 Characterization
      3. 2.4.3 High temperature reductive etching process
      4. 2.4.4 Gas sensing experiments
    5. 2.5 Results and Discussion
      1. 2.5.1 Mo- and MoO3-based studies
      2. 2.5.2 W- and WO3-based studies (1/3)
      3. 2.5.2 W- and WO3-based studies (2/3)
      4. 2.5.2 W- and WO3-based studies (3/3)
      5. 2.5.3 TiO2-based studies (1/2)
      6. 2.5.3 TiO2-based studies (2/2)
    6. 2.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  10. 3 Advanced characterization techniques for nanostructures
    1. 3.1 Measurement of the Topology of Nanostructures
      1. 3.1.1 Field emission scanning electron microscope
      2. 3.1.2 Scanning probe microscopy (1/2)
      3. 3.1.2 Scanning probe microscopy (2/2)
      4. 3.1.3 Optical microscopes
    2. 3.2 MEasurement of Internal Geometries of Nanostructures
      1. 3.2.1 Transmission electron microscope
      2. 3.2.2 Focused ion beam
      3. 3.2.3 X-ray diffraction
      4. 3.2.4 Mercury porosimetry
    3. 3.3 Measurement of Composition of Nanostructures
      1. 3.3.1 Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
      2. 3.3.2 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
      3. 3.3.3 Secondary ion mass spectroscopy
      4. 3.3.4 Auger electron spectroscopy
    4. 3.4 Conclusion
    5. References
  11. 4 Non-lithographic techniques for nanostructuring of thin films and bulk surfaces
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Template-assisted nanostructuring (1/3)
    3. 4.2 Template-assisted nanostructuring (2/3)
    4. 4.2 Template-assisted nanostructuring (3/3)
    5. 4.3 Electric field induced nanostructuring (1/2)
    6. 4.3 Electric field induced nanostructuring (2/2)
    7. 4.4 Laser-induced nanostructuring (1/2)
    8. 4.4 Laser-induced nanostructuring (2/2)
    9. 4.5 Vapour–Liquid–Solid technique
    10. 4.6 Summary and Outlook
    11. Acknowledgements
    12. References
  12. 5 Engineered carbon nanotube field emission devices
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. 5.1.1 Synthesis (1/3)
      2. 5.1.1 Synthesis (2/3)
      3. 5.1.1 Synthesis (3/3)
      4. 5.1.2 Positional Control
      5. 5.1.3 Alignment Control
    2. 5.2 Field Emission (1/3)
    3. 5.2 Field Emission (2/3)
    4. 5.2 Field Emission (3/3)
      1. 5.2.1 Electron Microscopy
      2. 5.2.2 Parallel Electron Beam Lithography
      3. 5.2.3 X-ray Sources
      4. 5.2.4 Microwave Sources
      5. 5.2.5 Displays
      6. 5.2.6 Gas Ionization Sensors and Gauges
      7. 5.2.7 Interstellar Propulsion
    5. 5.3 Conclusion
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  13. 6 Upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biological applications
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The Mechanism of Fluorescent UC
    3. 6.3 Upconverting Nanoparticles
    4. 6.4 Conjugation of Biomolecules to UCN
    5. 6.5 UCN for Biological Applications
      1. 6.5.1 UCN in immunoassays
      2. 6.5.2 UCN in bioimaging
      3. 6.5.3 UCN for photodynamic therapy
    6. 6.6 Conclusion
    7. References
  14. 7 Micro- and nanomachining
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Machining Effects at the Microscale
      1. 7.2.1 Shear Angle Prediction
      2. 7.2.2 Plastic Behavior at Large Strains
      3. 7.2.3 Langford and Cohen’s Model
      4. 7.2.4 Walker and Shaw’s Model
      5. 7.2.5 Usui’s Model
      6. 7.2.6 Sawtooth Chip Formation in Hard Turning
      7. 7.2.7 Fluid-Like Flow in Chip Formation
    3. 7.3 Size Effects in Micromachining
    4. 7.4 Nanomachining
      1. 7.4.1 Nanometric Machining
      2. 7.4.2 Theoretical Basis of Nanomachining (1/3)
      3. 7.4.2 Theoretical Basis of Nanomachining (2/3)
      4. 7.4.2 Theoretical Basis of Nanomachining (3/3)
      5. 7.4.3 Comparison of Nanometric Machining and Conventional Machining
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  15. 8 Design of experiments: a key to innovation in nanotechnology
    1. 8.1 Introduction to DoE
    2. 8.2 OFAT: The Predominant Method Used in Practice
    3. 8.3 Traditional Methods Used in Research and Development
      1. 8.3.1 Completely randomized design
      2. 8.3.2 Two-level factorial design
      3. 8.3.3 RSM
      4. 8.3.4 Taguchi’s method
      5. 8.3.5 Opportunities for improvement in experimentation
    4. 8.4 Modern DoE Methods Appropriate for Nanotechnology and Nanomanufacturing
      1. 8.4.1 Split plot design and its variants
      2. 8.4.2 MSSP design
      3. 8.4.3 Repeated measures
      4. 8.4.4 Saturated and supersaturated design
      5. 8.4.5 Mixture design
      6. 8.4.6 Computer deterministic experiments
      7. 8.4.7 Computer-generated design: Alphabetical optimal design
    5. 8.5 Summary of Nanotechnology Articles that Use Statistical Experimentation
    6. 8.6 Final Remarks
    7. References
  16. 9 Environmental and occupational health issues with nanoparticles
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Potential Health Effects
    3. 9.3 Current State of the Literature (1/2)
    4. 9.3 Current State of the Literature (2/2)
    5. 9.4 Characterization of Airborne Nanoparticles
    6. 9.5 Conclusions
    7. References
  17. 10 Commercialization of nanotechnologies: technology transfer from university research laboratories
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Venture Capitalists
      2. 10.1.2 Start-Up Companies in Nanotechnology
    2. 10.2 Role of Government in Commercialization
    3. 10.3 Role of Academic Research in Commercializing Nanotechnology Products
    4. 10.4 Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology Products
    5. 10.5 IP—Impact and Ownership
      1. 10.5.1 Patents
      2. 10.5.2 Trade Secrets
      3. 10.5.3 Copyright
    6. 10.6 Role of the Entrepreneur, Major Corporations, and National Laboratories in Commercialization
    7. 10.7 Concluding Remarks
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
    10. Internet Resources
  18. 11 Fabrication of hydrogel micropatterns by soft photolithography
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Microfabrication
      1. 11.2.1 Microfabrication techniques
    3. 11.3 Lithography
    4. 11.4 Hydrogel as a biomaterial
    5. 11.5 Soft photolithography of hydrogel micropatterns
      1. 11.5.1 Fabrication of PDMS stamp
      2. 11.5.2 Surface functionalization of silicon substrates by silanization
      3. 11.5.3 Soft photolithography
    6. 11.6 Conclusion
    7. References
  19. 12 Nanocrystalline diamond for RF-MEMS applications
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Diamond crystal structure and properties
    3. 12.3 Chemical vapour deposition of diamond films
    4. 12.4 Growth mechanism of NCD films
    5. 12.5 Techniques for the characterization of NCD films
    6. 12.6 Mechanical resonators
    7. 12.7 Electrostatic and thermal switches
    8. 12.8 DESIGN of the thermally actuated NCD actuator
    9. 12.9 Fabrication and integration
    10. 12.10 Measurement and analysis
    11. Acknowledgements
    12. References
  20. 13 Analysis of the effects of micromachining using nanostructured cutting tools
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Computational Analyses
      1. 13.2.1 Computational Analysis of Temperature in Micromachining
      2. 13.2.2 Finite Element Analysis
    3. 13.3 Computational Results
      1. 13.3.1 Uncoated Microtools
      2. 13.3.2 Coated Cutting Tools (1/2)
      3. 13.3.2 Coated Cutting Tools (2/2)
    4. 13.4 Discussion
    5. 13.5 Conclusions
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  21. 14 Metal oxide nanopowder
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Use of nanopowders since the year 2000
    3. 14.3 The chemistry of metal oxide nanopowder
      1. 14.3.1 Important behaviour of metal oxide nanopowder
      2. 14.3.2 Criteria for the synthesis of metal oxide
      3. 14.3.3 Requirements for the synthesis of nanoparticles
      4. 14.3.4 Controlling factors for the growth of nanopowder
    4. 14.4 Different methods used for the synthesis of metal oxide nanopowder
      1. 14.4.1 High temperature synthesis
      2. 14.4.2 Low temperature synthesis
      3. 14.4.3 Replication method
      4. 14.4.4 Mechanical attrition
      5. 14.4.5 Hydrothermal synthesis
      6. 14.4.6 Inverse micelle method
      7. 14.4.7 Sol–gel process
      8. 14.4.8 General mechanism for sol–gel process
      9. 14.4.9 Acid-catalysed mechanism
      10. 14.4.10 Pechini method
    5. 14.5 Characterization of metal oxide nanopowder
      1. 14.5.1 Infrared spectroscopy
      2. 14.5.2 Ultraviolet spectroscopy
      3. 14.5.3 Thermal analysis
      4. 14.5.4 Raman spectroscopy
      5. 14.5.5 Atomic force microscopy
      6. 14.5.6 X-ray diffraction studies
      7. 14.5.7 Wide angle X-ray scattering
      8. 14.5.8 Small angle X-ray scattering
      9. 14.5.9 Electron microscopy
      10. 14.5.10 Transmission electron microscopy
      11. 14.5.11 Scanning electron microscopy
      12. 14.5.12 Characterization of porosity
    6. 14.6 Application based on phase transfer
      1. 14.6.1 The synthesis of monometal-based nanopowder
      2. 14.6.2 Use of titania film in car
    7. 14.7 Synthesis of bimetallic alkoxide for the preparation of bimetallic oxide nanopowder
      1. 14.7.1 Physico-chemical properties of bimetallic alkoxides [94–96]
      2. 14.7.2 Preparation of bimetallic oxide nanopowder via sol–gel process
      3. 14.7.3 Some SEM data of bimetallic oxide
    8. 14.8 APPlications of metal oxide for photoluminescence
    9. 14.9 Conclusions
    10. 14.10 Future prospects
    11. Acknowledgement
    12. Dedication
    13. References
  22. 15 Some approaches to large-scale manufacturing of liposomes
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Structure and Self-Assembly of Phospholipids
    3. 15.3 Biological Functionality of Liposomes
      1. 15.3.1 Conventional Liposomes
      2. 15.3.2 Cationic Liposomes
      3. 15.3.3 Thermosensitive (Temperature-Sensitive) Liposomes
      4. 15.3.4 pH-Sensitive Liposomes
      5. 15.3.5 Long-Circulating (Sterically Stabilized) Liposomes
      6. 15.3.6 Ultradeformable Liposomes (Transferosomes)
    4. 15.4 Methods of Liposome Preparation
      1. 15.4.1 Thin Film Hydration Method
      2. 15.4.2 Reverse Phase Evaporation Vesicles
      3. 15.4.3 Freeze-Drying Method
      4. 15.4.4 Proliposome Methods
    5. 15.5 Large-Scale Manufacture of Particulate-Based Proliposomes
      1. 15.5.1 Proliposomes Manufactured Using Fluidized-Bed Coating
      2. 15.5.2 Proliposomes Produced Using Air-Jet (Fluid Energy) Milling
      3. 15.5.3 Proliposomes Produced Using Spray Drying
    6. 15.6 Large-Scale Manufacture of Ethanol-Based Proliposomes
    7. 15.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  23. 16 Nanocoatings in medicine: antiquity and modern times
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 What Is a Nanocoating?
    3. 16.3 Common Nanocoating Methods
    4. 16.4 Nonmedical Applications of Nanocoating Technologies
      1. 16.4.1 Nanoprotection
      2. 16.4.2 Mechanical Properties
      3. 16.4.3 New Functionality
    5. 16.5 Nanocoating of Medical Devices
      1. 16.5.1 Dentistry
      2. 16.5.2 Implants
      3. 16.5.3 Stents
      4. 16.5.4 Cells
      5. 16.5.5 Miscellaneous
    6. 16.6 Nanocoating of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
    7. 16.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  24. 17 Smart precursors for smart nanoparticles
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Type of Nanoparticles
      1. 17.2.1 Novel Properties of Materials at the Nanoscale
    3. 17.3 Structure of Nanoparticles [16–19]
    4. 17.4 Conductive Properties [3,20,21]
    5. 17.5 Metal Oxide
    6. 17.6 Shape of the Particles
      1. 17.6.1 Particle Size and its Distributions
    7. 17.7 Surface Charge Density and Their Colloidal Stability
      1. 17.7.1 Interfacial Polarity
      2. 17.7.2 Cross-Linking
      3. 17.7.3 Functionality
    8. 17.8 Chemistry of Metal Alkoxides Used as Single-Source Molecular Precursors for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials [25–78]
      1. 17.8.1 Geometrical Concept in the Design of Molecular Structure [26–29]
      2. 17.8.2 Schematic Representation of the Major Experimental Steps Involved in the Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanopowder
      3. 17.8.3 Reactivity of Metal Substitution Reactions
    9. 17.9 Molecular Structure Plays the Decisive Role
      1. 17.9.1 Synthesis of Nanomaterials [41–61]
      2. 17.9.2 Capping Agents
      3. 17.9.3 Liquid-Phase Synthesis
      4. 17.9.4 Advantages of Vapor-Phase Synthesis
      5. 17.9.5 Methods Used for Liquid or Vapor Precursor Process
      6. 17.9.6 Processing for the Synthesis of Nanostructure Materials in the Nanoparticle
      7. 17.9.7 Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique for Deposition [76,244–247]
    10. 17.10 Experimental Techniques
      1. 17.10.1 FTIR Spectra
      2. 17.10.2 Difference in Energy States = Energy of Light Absorbed
      3. 17.10.3 Calcination at 450°C for 4 h in dry air
      4. 17.10.4 Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy (1/2)
      5. 17.10.4 Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy (2/2)
      6. 17.10.5 Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis
      7. 17.10.6 Specific Surface Area
      8. 17.10.7 Scanning Electron Microscopy
      9. 17.10.8 Probe Microscopy
    11. 17.11 Diffraction Techniques
      1. 17.11.1 Neutron Diffraction
    12. 17.12 Miscellaneous Techniques [282,283]
      1. 17.12.1 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
      2. 17.12.2 Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)
      3. 17.12.3 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
      4. 17.12.4 Mass Spectroscopy
      5. 17.12.5 Photoelectron Spectroscopy
      6. 17.12.6 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
      7. 17.12.7 Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET)
    13. 17.13 Applications of Nanomaterials
    14. 17.14 Uses of Nanomaterials for Various Applications
      1. 17.14.1 Thin Coatings [293–297] (1/3)
      2. 17.14.1 Thin Coatings [293–297] (2/3)
      3. 17.14.1 Thin Coatings [293–297] (3/3)
    15. 17.15 Conclusion
    16. Dedication
    17. References
  25. Index (1/3)
  26. Index (2/3)
  27. Index (3/3)

Product information

  • Title: Emerging Nanotechnologies for Manufacturing, 2nd Edition
  • Author(s): Waqar Ahmed, J. Mark Jackson
  • Release date: September 2014
  • Publisher(s): William Andrew
  • ISBN: 9780323296434