3. Microtechnology-Based Implantable Devices and Bionics

Over the past decades, advancements in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of microdevices, such as microneedles, micropumps, microvalves, and microbionic systems for drug delivery, diagnostics, neural prosthetics, minimally invasive surgery, and tissue engineering [96]. Advancement in the field of microfabrication techniques have resulted in the development of MEMS, bioMEMS, lab-on-a-chip (LOC), micro-total analysis systems, and other microdevices. These advancements in microtechnology offer various benefits, such as portability, ease of implantation, excellent performance, low cost, and more control over the release of the therapeutic molecules. In addition, the ...

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