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Emerging Technologies and Management of Crop Stress Tolerance

Book Description

Emerging Technologies and Management of Crop Stress Tolerance: Volume 1 - Biological Techniques presents the latest technologies used by scientists for improvement the crop production and explores the various roles of these technologies for the enhancement of crop productivity and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria that can cause disease.

This resource provides a comprehensive review of how proteomics, genomics, transcriptomics, ionomics, and micromics are a pathway to improve plant stress tolerance to increase productivity and meet the agricultural needs of the growing human population. This valuable resource will help any scientist have a better understanding of environmental stresses to improve resource management within a world of limited resources.

  • Includes the most recent advances methods and applications of biotechnology to crop science
  • Discusses different techniques of genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and nanotechnology
  • Promotes the prevention of potential diseases to inhibit bacteria postharvest quality of fruits and vegetable crops by advancing application and research
  • Presents a thorough account of research results and critical reviews

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. About the Editors
  8. List of Contributors
  9. Chapter 1. Genomic Approaches and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Physiological, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms of abiotic stress in plants
    3. 1.3 Effects of abiotic stresses on physiological, cellular, and biochemical processes in plants
    4. 1.4 Conventional breeding technology to induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants
    5. 1.5 Functional genomics approaches to induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants
    6. 1.6 Conclusion and future perspectives
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  10. Chapter 2. Metabolomics Role in Crop Improvement
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Techniques involved in metabolomics
    3. 2.3 Metabolomics and nutrigenomics—a link
    4. 2.4 Applications of metabolomics in crop improvement
    5. 2.5 Improvement of strawberry quality by metabolomics
    6. 2.6 Conclusion and future prospects
    7. References
  11. Chapter 3. Transcription Factors and Environmental Stresses in Plants
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Transcription factors activate stress responsive genes
    3. 3.3 APETALA 2/ethylene-responsive element-binding factor
    4. 3.4 The MYC/MYB transcriptional factors
    5. 3.5 NAC transcriptional factors
    6. 3.6 WRKY transcriptional factors
    7. 3.7 CYS2HIS2 zinc-finger (C2H2 ZF) TFs
    8. 3.8 Conclusion and future perspectives
    9. References
  12. Chapter 4. Plant Resistance under Cold Stress: Metabolomics, Proteomics, and Genomic Approaches
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Causes of freezing injury
    3. 4.3 Freezing-tolerance mechanisms
    4. 4.4 Antioxidant defense under cold stress
    5. 4.5 Cold signal transducers
    6. 4.6 Conclusion and future prospects
    7. References
  13. Chapter 5. Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants for Abiotic Stress Tolerance
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Overexpression of genes for transcriptional regulation
    3. 5.3 Overexpression of genes for osmoprotectants
    4. 5.4 Engineering of ion transport
    5. 5.5 Overexpression of genes for stress signaling
    6. 5.6 Quenching of reactive oxygen species
    7. 5.7 Conclusion and future perspectives
    8. References
  14. Chapter 6. Bt Crops: A Sustainable Approach towards Biotic Stress Tolerance
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Bacillus thuringiensis
    3. 6.3 Transformation of crops with Bt genes
    4. 6.4 Molecular analyses of putative transgenic plants
    5. 6.5 Greenhouse and field experiments
    6. 6.6 Biosafety and risk assessment studies
    7. 6.7 Conclusion and future prospects
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  15. Chapter 7. Modern Tools for Enhancing Crop Adaptation to Climatic Changes
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Stresses caused by climatic changes
    3. 7.3 Modern tools for enhancing crop adaptation
    4. 7.4 Conclusion and future prospects
    5. References
  16. Chapter 8. Interactions of Nanoparticles with Plants: An Emerging Prospective in the Agriculture Industry
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Classification of nanoparticles
    3. 8.3 Applications of NPs
    4. 8.4 Plant–nanoparticle interactions: yet to reach “the state of art”
    5. 8.5 Mode of nanoparticle internalization by plants
    6. 8.6 Influence of nanoparticles as growth promoters in plants
    7. 8.7 Influence of NPs as biological control in plants
    8. 8.8 Conclusion and future perspectives
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. References
  17. Chapter 9. Role of miRNAs in Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Plants
    1. 9.1 Introduction: miRNA as a significant player in gene regulation
    2. 9.2 Mechanisms of miRNA biogenesis and function
    3. 9.3 miRNA-mediated functions in plants
    4. 9.4 Genome-wide miRNA profiling under abiotic stresses
    5. 9.5 Involvement of miRNAs in plant stresses
    6. 9.6 Overexpression of miRNAs to resolve their functions in abiotic stresses in plants
    7. 9.7 Innovative approaches for elucidating gene function
    8. 9.8 Conclusion and future prospects
    9. References
  18. Chapter 10. Gene Silencing: A Novel Cellular Defense Mechanism Improving Plant Productivity under Environmental Stresses
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Elements of RNAi
    3. 10.3 Mode of action
    4. 10.4 RNAi under environmental stresses
    5. 10.5 Conclusion and future prospects
    6. References
  19. Chapter 11. The Role of Carbohydrates in Plant Resistance to Abiotic Stresses
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Osmotic balance during the action of unfavorable environmental factors
    3. 11.3 Compatible osmolytes and physiology of resistance
    4. 11.4 Conclusion and future prospects
    5. References
  20. Chapter 12. Role of Glucosinolates in Plant Stress Tolerance
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Glucosinolate structure, isolation, and analysis
    3. 12.3 Biosynthesis of glucosinolates
    4. 12.4 Role of glucosinolates in stress alleviation
    5. 12.5 Genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis
    6. 12.6 Gene expression profiling in response to environmental cues
    7. 12.7 Signaling networks
    8. 12.8 Metabolic engineering of glucosinolates
    9. 12.9 Conclusion and future prospects
    10. References
  21. Chapter 13. Plant Responses to Iron, Manganese, and Zinc Deficiency Stress
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Iron deficiency in soils
    3. 13.3 Soil factors influencing Fe availability and uptake
    4. 13.4 Physiological roles and symptoms of Fe deficiency in plants
    5. 13.5 Physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies of plants under Fe deficiency conditions
    6. 13.6 Manganese deficiency in soils
    7. 13.7 Soil factors influencing Mn availability
    8. 13.8 Physiological roles and symptoms of Mn deficiency in plants
    9. 13.9 Physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies of plants under Mn deficiency conditions
    10. 13.10 Zinc deficiency in soils
    11. 13.11 Soil factors influencing Zn availability
    12. 13.12 Physiological roles and symptoms of Zn deficiency in plants
    13. 13.13 Physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies of plants under Zn deficiency conditions
    14. 13.14 Conclusion and future perspectives
    15. References
  22. Chapter 14. Role of Trace Elements in Alleviating Environmental Stress
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Plant responses to environmental stress
    3. 14.3 Alleviation of environmental stress by trace elements
    4. 14.4 Effects of beneficial elements on plant stress responses
    5. 14.5 Conclusion and future prospects
    6. References
  23. Chapter 15. Nutritional Stress in Dystrophic Savanna Soils of the Orinoco Basin: Biological Responses to Low Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availabilities
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Main environmental features of the savannas of the Orinoco basin
    3. 15.3 Nutritional stresses in well-drained savannas—nitrogen as a limiting element
    4. 15.4 Nutritional stresses in well-drained savannas—phosphorus as a limiting element
    5. 15.5 Strategies that are used by native savanna plants to enhance nitrogen and phosphorus conservation and uptake
    6. 15.6 Conclusion and future prospects
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  24. Chapter 16. Silicon and Selenium: Two Vital Trace Elements that Confer Abiotic Stress Tolerance to Plants
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Silicon uptake and transport in plants
    3. 16.3 Selenium uptake and metabolism in plants
    4. 16.4 Involvement of silicon and selenium in plant growth, development, and physiology
    5. 16.5 Effect of silicon and selenium in improving yield of crop plants
    6. 16.6 Protective roles of silicon and selenium under abiotic stress
    7. 16.7 Conclusion and future prospects
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  25. Chapter 17. Herbicides, Pesticides, and Plant Tolerance: An Overview
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Global pesticide use
    3. 17.3 Why pesticide-/herbicide-tolerant plants?
    4. 17.4 Mechanisms of Herbicide/pesticide tolerance in plants
    5. 17.5 The selection process of tolerant plants
    6. 17.6 Conclusion and future prospects
    7. References
  26. Chapter 18. Effects of Humic Materials on Plant Metabolism and Agricultural Productivity
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 General aspects of the characteristics of humic materials and their functions
    3. 18.3 Use of humic materials for sustainable plant production
    4. 18.4 Conclusion and future prospects
    5. References
  27. Chapter 19. Climate Changes and Potential Impacts on Quality of Fruit and Vegetable Crops
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Impacts of climate change on vegetable production systems in Brazil
    3. 19.3 Harvest and post-harvest
    4. 19.4 Effects of temperature
    5. 19.5 Effects of carbon dioxide exposure
    6. 19.6 Effects of ozone exposure
    7. 19.7 Conclusion and future prospects
    8. References
  28. Chapter 20. Interplays of Plant Circadian Clock and Abiotic Stress Response Networks
    1. Abstract
    2. 20.1 Introduction
    3. 20.2 Molecular basis of the circadian clock function in plants
    4. 20.3 Molecular basis of the interaction between the clock components and cold response
    5. 20.4 Crosstalk between the circadian clock and ABA transcriptional networks
    6. 20.5 Light inputs to the clock
    7. 20.6 Relationships between ROS transcriptional network and the circadian timekeeping system
    8. 20.7 Contribution of cellular metabolism to circadian network
    9. 20.8 Conclusion and future perspectives
    10. References
  29. Chapter 21. Development of Water Saving Techniques for Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the Arid Environment of Punjab, Pakistan
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Methodology
    3. 21.3 Results and discussion
    4. 21.4 Conclusion and future prospects
    5. References
  30. Index