187
K
K
KA A process for making the explosive RDX by nitrating hexamethylenetetramine in acetic anhydride.
Developed in Germany during World War II.
KAAP [Kellogg Advanced Ammonia Process] The rst high-pressure process developed for synthesizing
ammonia from its elements that does not use an iron-containing catalyst. The reformer gas for this process
is provided by the *KRES process. The catalyst was developed by BP; it contains ruthenium supported on
carbon. Developed by M.W. Kellogg Company in 1990 and rst installed by the Ocelot Ammonia Company
(now Pacic Ammonia) at Kitimat, British Columbia, in 1992. By 2005, over 200 large-scale plants had been
contracted worldwide.
Chem. Week, 3 Apr 1991, 13.
Eur. Chem. News, 1992, 58(1524), 42; 1993, 60(1592), 27.
Oil Gas J., 1996, 94(47), 37.
KAAP plus An improved version of *KAAP, announced by Kellogg Brown & Root in 1999. It combines
the features of the KBR Advanced Ammonia Process, the KBR Reforming Exchanger System, and the KBR
Purier technology. The catalyst is the same as that used in KAAP. In 2003, more than 200 large-scale plants
were operating or had been contracted.
Eur. Chem. News, 1999, 71(1885), 40.
Hydrocarbon Process. Int. Ed., 2003, 82(3), 76.
Kaldnes A variation of the *Activated Sludge process for sewage treatment, in which the biological matter
is immobilized within short lengths of plastic pipe. It is very effective for removing nitrogenous compounds.
Developed in 1987 by Trondheim Technical University and commercialized by Kaldnes, a Norwegian engi-
neering company. Tested in a full-scale plant in Oslo in 1990.
Pollution Prevention, 1994, 4(5), 50.
Kaldo [Kalling Domnarvets] An oxygen steelmaking process, rst operated in Domnarvets, Sweden, in 1956.
The furnace rotates at approximately 30 rpm around an axis tilted 17° to the vertical. Variation in the rate of
oxygen supply and speed of rotation permits close control of the steel composition. Invented by B. Kalling.
The name is now used as a general name for both ferrous and nonferrous metallurgical processes using rotat-
ing furnaces, developed by the Boliden group of companies in Sweden.
Kalling See DR.
Kalthydrierung [German, meaning cold hydrogenation] A process for selectively hydrogenating
“pyrolysis gasoline,” a petroleum rening by-product, at temperatures below 100°C. A palladium catalyst
is used.
Krönig, W., Erdoel Kohle, 1965, 18, 432.
Kalunite [From K, potassium, and alunite, the ore] A process for extracting aluminum from alunite, a natu-
rally occurring basic sulfate of aluminum and potassium having the idealized formula KAl
3
(SO
4
)
2
(OH)
6
.
Based on an invention made by G.S. Tilley in 1924. The ore is rst dehydrated at up to 600°C. It is then
leached with a solution of sulfuric acid and potassium sulfate. After clarication of the leachate, potassium

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