BIOS and Management Firmware

Thousands of times a second, CPUs, memory, system interconnects, and other components transition between a number of different active and idle power states to minimize the use of energy. Energy-efficient use of these power states isn’t possible without careful coordination between hardware and software—including BIOS firmware, management firmware, operating systems, and applications. If any one of these firmware or software components fails to fulfill its role in this coordination, it can cause a wide variety of problems—from increases in power to decreases in performance. Figure 5-1 illustrates the hierarchy ...

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