The process of electric energy generation, transmission, and distribution is conducted via a large-scale central generation (CG) to meet increasing demand at industrial, commercial, and residential loads. The generation of power through central generation is done via coal-fired, fossil-fuel, hydro, and steam turbines. These resources are converted to electrical energy then processed through different technologies to meet growing load demands. Similarly, the transmission of power from generating units requires high investment, including numerous energy-processing technologies to transfer power to load centers. This is done via transformers and solid-state switching devices at very high voltages. Distribution-system networks are also significant for dispatching power at low voltage via step-down transformers to domestic consumers. Given the different direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) load models and categories, energy-processing devices such as converters and inverters are needed especially when issues of safety, quality of power, security, and processing are important to meet different loads from various sources.

In recent years, many new distributed generation (DG) sources have been introduced with the aim of reducing losses and increasing reliability, regardless of economy of scale of CG, which can be huge when accounting for cost of transmission and reliability during failure.

DG created from solar, mini-hydro, wind, ...

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