The modern power grid is one of the most complex man-made engineering systems delivering close to 1000 GW of electricity in the United States alone. Power generation in the traditional power grid is highly centralized with power and energy flowing unidirectionally from synchronous generators through a transmission/distribution network to end users. However, technological issues of traditional electric utilities as well as environmental problems caused by the combustion of fossil fuels have stimulated the research and development of new power system technologies. With the emergence of distributed energy resources (DER), for example, wind, photovoltaic, battery, biomass, micro-turbine, fuel cell, etc., microgrid technologies have attracted ...

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