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Engineering Chemistry

Book Description

Engineering Chemistry is an interdisciplinary subject offered to undergraduate Eengineering students. This book introduces the fundamental concepts in a simple and concise manner and highlights the role of chemistry in the field of engineering. It includes a large number of end-of-chapter exercises that test the student's understanding besides being useful from the examination point of view.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. About the Authors
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. 1. Water Technology
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Sources of Water
    3. 1.3 Types of Impurities Present in Water
    4. 1.4 Hard Water and Hardness
    5. 1.5 Determination of Hardness
    6. 1.6 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
    7. 1.7 Determination of Chlorides in Water
    8. 1.8 Determination of Acidity in Water
    9. 1.9 Alkalinity of Water
    10. 1.10 Disadvantages of Hard Water
    11. 1.11 Quality of Water for Domestic Use
    12. 1.12 Treatment of Water for Domestic Use
    13. 1.13 Break-Point Chlorination
    14. 1.14 Boilers and Boiler Troubles
    15. 1.15 Softening of Water
    16. 1.16 Desalination
    17. 1.17 Review Questions
  8. 2. Electrochemistry and Batteries
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Electrolysis
      1. 2.2.1 Laws of Electrolysis
    3. 2.3 Electrolytic Conduction
      1. 2.3.1 Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conduction
      2. 2.3.2 Electrical Resistance and Conductance
      3. 2.3.3 Specific, Equivalent and Molar Conductivities
      4. 2.3.4 Equivalent Conductivity
      5. 2.3.5 Molar Conductivity
      6. 2.3.6 Measurement of Electrolytic Conductance
      7. 2.3.7 Variation of Conductivity with Concentration
      8. 2.3.8 Conductance Behaviour of Strong Electrolyte
      9. 2.3.9 Conductance Behaviour of Weak Electrolyte
    4. 2.4 Kohlrausch’s Law of Independent Migration of Ions
    5. 2.5 Conductometric Titrations
    6. 2.6 Electrochemical Cells
    7. 2.7 Types of Electrodes
    8. 2.8 Reference Electrode
    9. 2.9 Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE)
      1. 2.9.1 Electrochemical Circuit and Working of ISE
      2. 2.9.2 Types of Ion – Selective Membranes
    10. 2.10 Glass Electrode
    11. 2.10.1 Construction of Glass Electrode
    12. 2.11 Concentration Cell
    13. 2.12 Potentiometric Titrations
    14. 2.13 Batteries
      1. 2.13.1 Advantages of Batteries
      2. 2.13.2 Disadvantages of Batteries
    15. 2.14 Electrochemical Sensors
      1. 2.14.1 Potentiometric Sensor
      2. 2.14.2 Analysis of Glucose in Blood
      3. 2.14.3 Analysis of Urea
    16. 2.15 Review Questions
      1. Fill in the Blanks
      2. Multiple-choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Solved Numerical Problems
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Problems for Practice
  9. 3. Science of Corrosion
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. 3.1.1 Causes
      2. 3.1.2 Types of Corrosion
    2. 3.2 Galvanic Series
      1. 3.2.1 Factors Affecting Corrosion
    3. 3.3 Protection From Corrosion (Preventive Measures for Corrosion Control)
    4. 3.4 Review Questions
      1. Fill in the Blanks
      2. Multiple-choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Descriptive Questions
  10. 4. Polymers
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Degree of Polymerization
    3. 4.3 Classification of Polymers
      1. 4.3.1 Classification Depending on the Basis of Source
      2. 4.3.2 Classification on the Basis of Composition
      3. 4.3.3 Classification on the Basis of Chemical Composition
      4. 4.3.4 Classification on the Basis of Structure
      5. 4.3.5 Classification on the Basis of their Methods of Synthesis
      6. 4.3.6 Classification Based on the Molecular Forces
    4. 4.4 Types of Polymerization
      1. 4.4.1 Condensation Polymerization or Step Polymerization
      2. 4.4.2 Addition or Vinyl or Chain Polymerization
      3. 4.4.3 Coordination Polymerization
    5. 4.5 Molecular Mass of a Polymer
    6. 4.6 Plastics
    7. 4.7 Important Polymers – Composition, Preparation, Properties, and Engineering Uses
      1. 4.7.1 Thermo Plastics
      2. 4.7.2 Thermosetting Plastics
    8. 4.8 Rubber (Elastomers)
      1. 4.8.1 Processing of Natural Rubber
      2. 4.8.2 Gutta Percha
      3. 4.8.3 Vulcanization of Rubber
      4. 4.8.4 Compounding of Rubber
      5. 4.8.5 Synthetic Rubbers or Artificial Rubber
      6. 4.8.6 Important Artificial Rubbers
    9. 4.9 Reinforced or Filled Plastics
    10. 4.10 Conducting Polymers
    11. 4.11 Polyphosphazenes/Phosphonitritic Polymers
    12. 4.12 Composites
      1. 4.12.1 Constituents of Composites
      2. 4.12.2 Classification of Composites
      3. 4.12.3 Advantages of Composites Over Conventional Materials
      4. 4.12.4 Applications of Composites
    13. 4.13 Review Questions
      1. Fill in the Blanks
      2. Multiple-choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Descriptive Questions
  11. 5. Fuels and Combustion
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Classification of Fuels
    3. 5.3 Units of Heat
    4. 5.4 Calorific Value
    5. 5.5 Determination of Calorific Value
      1. 5.5.1 Bomb Calorimeter
      2. 5.5.2 Junker’s Calorimeter
    6. 5.6 Characteristics of Good Fuel
    7. 5.7 Solid Fuels
      1. 5.7.1 Coal
      2. 5.7.2 Analysis of Coal
      3. 5.7.3 Metallurgical Coke
      4. 5.7.4 Manufacture of Metallurgical Coke
    8. 5.8 Liquid Fuels
      1. 5.8.1 Petroleum Refining
      2. 5.8.2 Important Petroleum Products and their Uses
    9. 5.9 Synthetic Petrol
      1. 5.9.1 Cracking
      2. 5.9.2 Fischer–Trapsch Method
      3. 5.9.3 Bergius Method
    10. 5.10 Power Alcohol
    11. 5.10.1 Manufacture of Power Alcohol
    12. 5.11 Knocking
    13. 5.12 Diesel Engine, Cetane and Octane Number
    14. 5.13 Gaseous Fuels
      1. 5.13.1 Natural Gas
      2. 5.13.2 Producer Gas (or) Suction Gas
      3. 5.13.3 Water Gas (or) Blue Gas
      4. 5.13.4 Coal Gas
      5. 5.13.5 Biogas
    15. 5.14 Flue Gas Analysis by Orsats Apparatus
    16. 5.15 Review Questions
      1. Fill in the Blanks
      2. Multiple-choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Descriptive Questions
  12. 6. Chemistry of Engineering Materials
    1. 6.1 Semiconducting and Super Conducting Materials
      1. 6.1.1 Semiconductor
      2. 6.1.2 Applications of Semiconductors
      3. 6.1.3 Super-conductors
    2. 6.2 Magnetic Materials
      1. 6.2.1 General Properties of Magnetic Materials
      2. 6.2.2 Classification
      3. 6.2.3 Applications of Magnetic Materials
    3. 6.3 Cement
      1. 6.3.1 Classification of Cements
      2. 6.3.2 Raw Materials Used in the Manufacture of Portland Cement
      3. 6.3.3 Manufacture of Portland Cement
      4. 6.3.4 Chemical Composition of Portland Cement and their Importance
      5. 6.3.5 Setting and Hardening of Cement
      6. 6.3.6 Specifications of Cement
      7. 6.3.7 Analysis of Cement
      8. 6.3.8 Plaster of Paris/Gypsum Plaster
    4. 6.4 Refractories
      1. 6.4.1 Characteristics of Good Refractory Materials
      2. 6.4.2 Failures of Refractory Materials
      3. 6.4.3 Classification of Refractories
      4. 6.4.4 Properties of Refractories
      5. 6.4.5 Manufacture of High-Alumina Bricks, Magnesite Bricks, and Zirconia Bricks
    5. 6.5 Lubricants
      1. 6.5.1 Important Functions of Lubricants
      2. 6.5.2 Mechanism of Lubrication
      3. 6.5.3 Classification of Lubricants
      4. 6.5.4 Properties of Lubricants
      5. 6.5.5 The Redwood Viscometer
      6. 6.5.6 Englers Viscometer
      7. 6.5.7 Saybolt Viscometer
      8. 6.5.8 U-Tube Viscometer
      9. 6.5.9 Conversion of Redwood, Engler and Saybolt Viscosities into Absolute Units
    6. 6.6 Explosives and Propellants
      1. 6.6.1 Some Important Terms about Explosives
      2. 6.6.2 Classification of Explosives
      3. 6.6.3 Precautions During Storage of Explosive
      4. 6.6.4 Blasting Fuses
      5. 6.6.5 Important Explosives and their Preparation
      6. 6.6.6 Rocket Propellants
      7. 6.6.7 Characteristics of a Good Propellant
      8. 6.6.8 Classifications of Propellants
    7. 6.7 Nanomaterials
      1. 6.7.1 Synthesis of Nanomaterials
      2. 6.7.2 Characterization
      3. 6.7.3 Importance
      4. 6.7.4 Broad Classification of Nanomaterials
      5. 6.7.5 Properties
      6. 6.7.6 Applications of Nanomaterials
      7. 6.7.7 Carbon Nanotubes
    8. 6.8 Liquid Crystals
      1. 6.8.1 Characteristics of Liquid Crystal Phase
      2. 6.8.2 Classification of Liquid Crystals
      3. 6.8.3 Thermotropic Liquid Crystals
      4. 6.8.4 Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
      5. 6.8.5 Chemical Properties of Liquid Crystals
      6. 6.8.6 Applications of Liquid Crystals
    9. 6.9 Non Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices
      1. 6.9.1 Nuclear Energy
      2. 6.9.2 Mass Defects and Nuclear Binding Energy
      3. 6.9.3 Nuclear Reactions
      4. 6.9.4 Solar Energy
    10. 6.10 Green House Concepts
      1. 6.10.1 Types of a Green House
      2. 6.10.2 Mechanism of Green House Effect
      3. 6.10.3 Requirements for Green House
    11. 6.11 Green Chemistry
      1. 6.11.1 12 Principles of Green Chemistry
      2. 6.11.2 Importance of Green Synthesis
      3. 6.11.3 Methods for Green Synthesis
      4. 6.11.4 Applications of Green Synthesis
    12. 6.12 Review Questions
      1. Fill in the Blanks
      2. Multiple-choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Descriptive Questions