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Engineering Chemistry by K. Sesha Maheswaramma

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15

STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MOLECULES

15.1 INTRODUCTION

By transferring or sharing electrons, a bond is formed between the atoms. The covalent bond plays a vital role in the formation of many organic molecules. A covalent bond is formed with the sharing of electrons between two atoms; it is mainly σ-bond and π- bond.

σ-bond

A sigma bond is formed with end-to-end overlap of orbitals.

π-bond

A π bond is formed with a partial or a side-wise overlap of orbitals.

15.2 HYBRIDISATION

Hybridisation is defined as the “hypothetical intermixing of nearly the same energy [of] atomic orbitals to give [an] entirely new identical equal energy orbitals”.

It is also defined as,

“Combining of atomic orbitals have different energies or ...

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