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Engineering Physics by S. Mani Naidu

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7.3 Origin of magnetic moment—Bohr magneton—electron spin

We know that electric current through a conductor develops magnetic field around it or current through a coil of wire will act as a magnet. This informs that there is an intimate relation between electric current and magnetic field. Flow of electrons along a path constitute electric current. In all atoms, electrons are revolving around the nucleus in different orbits. These revolving electrons constitute an electrical current in the orbits. These currents form magnetic dipoles. As electrons in an atom are revolving in different orbits that are randomly oriented, so the magnetic dipoles due to orbital motion of electrons are randomly oriented, results in zero magnetic dipole moment. The ...

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