Essences of Interaction

Without Boundaries: Oneness

The first one to have advocated that nature had oneness of character and a reality as only a whole was Parmenides* (Kirk et al. 2009). The view ascribed to Parmenides for philosophical inquiry is captured in three questions: What is it that is? What is it that is not? What is it that cannot be? This reinforces unity as the object of knowledge—the universal element of nature. That unity as an object is what we term as integration. The process of integration is to unify.

Since 500 BC Parmenides’ tenor of logic has inspired thinking about time, motion, change, and unity. But not everyone agreed. In a lecture on the philosophy of science in 1967, Professor Paul Feyerabend (University of ...

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