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Enterprise Application Integration With XML and Java™ by Bill la Forge, JP Morgenthal

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3. Logical Structures

Each XML document contains one or more elements, the boundaries of which are either delimited by start-tags and end-tags, or, for empty elements, by an empty-element tag. Each element has a type, identified by name, sometimes called its "generic identifier" (GI), and may have a set of attribute specifications. Each attribute specification has a name and a value.

Element

[39] element ::=  EmptyElemTag
                  | STag content ETag [ WFC: Element Type
                                        Match ]
                                      [ VC: Element Valid]

This specification does not constrain the semantics, use, or (beyond syntax) names of the element types and attributes, except that names beginning with a match to (('X'|'x')('M'|'m') ('L'|'l')) are reserved for standardization in this or future versions ...

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