11. Are my results significant?
11.1 The difference is due to random variation!217
11.2 The distribution of the total error218
11.3 Four important probability density functions220
11.4 A hypothesis testing scenario222
11.5 Testing improvement in fit228
11.6 Testing the significance of a spectral peak229
11.7 Bootstrap confidence intervals234
Chapter 11, Are My Results Significant?, returns to the issue of measurement error, now in terms of hypothesis testing. It concentrates on four important and very widely applicable statistical tests—those associated with the statistics, Z, χ2, t, and F. Familiarity with them provides a very broad base for developing the practice of always assessing the significance of any inference made during a data analysis ...