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Environmental Engineering

Book Description

The book is aimed at covering the syllabi requirements of Environmental Engineering-I offered to the undergraduate students of civil engineering. Designed with a student friendly approach, envisioning the benchmark status of the text, the treatise provides collective and definitive information on various aspects of Environmental Engineering including quantity and quality of water, house drainage, environmental microbiology, air pollution and solid waste management.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. About the Author
  3. 1 Environment and Its Components
    1. 1.1 Introduction: Background and Definitions
    2. 1.1.1 Definitions
    3. 1.2 The Human Environment
    4. 1.2.1 Man, Environment and Religion
    5. 1.2.2 Man and Environment: The Interactions
    6. 1.2.3 The Anthropocene
    7. 1.3 Elements of Environment
    8. 1.4 Components of Environment
    9. 1.4.1 Components of Environment as per British Scientists
    10. 1.4.2 Components of Environment as per the American Scientists
    11. 1.4.3 Components of Environment: American Approach
    12. 1.4.4 Socio-sphere
    13. Review Questions
  4. 2 Environmental Microbiology
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.1.1 Microbiology
    3. 2.1.2 The Cell
    4. 2.1.3 What are Microorganisms?
    5. 2.2 The Biological Kingdoms
    6. 2.2.1 Groups of Microorganisms
    7. 2.3 Types of Microorganisms
    8. 2.3.1 Bacteria
    9. 2.3.2 The Bacterial Growth Pattern
    10. 2.3.3 Mathematics of Growth
    11. 2.3.4 Algae
    12. 2.3.5 Rotifers
    13. 2.3.6 Lower Crustaceans
    14. 2.3.7 Worms (Vermes)
    15. 2.3.8 Fungi
    16. 2.3.9 Viruses
    17. 2.4 Waterborne Enteric Diseases
    18. 2.4.1 Indicators of Fecal Pollution
    19. 2.4.2 Bacterial Indicators of Excretal/Fecal Pollution
    20. 2.4.3 Coliform Test
    21. 2.4.4 Characteristics of Indicator Organisms
    22. 2.4.5 Tests
    23. 2.5 Role of Microorganisms
    24. Review Questions
  5. 3 Quantity of Water
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Water as a Resource
    3. 3.2.1 The Water Uses
    4. 3.3 Sources of Water
    5. 3.4 Water Resources of India: Availabilty and Distribution
    6. 3.4.1 Availability
    7. 3.4.2 Surface Water Resources
    8. 3.4.3 Ground Water Resources
    9. 3.4.4 Distribution of Water Resources
    10. 3.4.5 Water Scarcity
    11. 3.4.6 Important Terms Related to Ground Water and Surface Water
    12. 3.5 Assessment of Water Requirements
    13. 3.5.1 The Water Demand
    14. 3.5.2 Water Quantity Estimation for City or Town
    15. 3.5.3 Design Period
    16. 3.5.4 Population Forecast for Water Estimation
    17. 3.5.5 Industrial Water Use and Economy
    18. Review Questions
  6. 4 Quality of Water
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.1.1 Water Quality Parameters
    3. 4.2 Raw Water Characteristics
    4. 4.3 Impurities in Water
    5. 4.3.1 Sources and Impacts of Water Impurities
    6. 4.4 What is Pure Water?
    7. 4.5 The Drinking Water
    8. 4.6 Water Use in Industry
    9. 4.6.1 Water Quantity
    10. 4.6.2 Water Quality for Industrial Use
    11. 4.6.3 Water Quality for Boilers and Cooling Towers
    12. 4.6.4 Industrial Process Water Quality
    13. Review Questions
  7. 5 Wastewaters: Types, Effects and Characteristics
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The Wastewater
    3. 5.3 Types of Wastewater
    4. 5.3.1 Domestic Wastewater
    5. 5.3.2 Industrial Wastewater
    6. 5.3.3 Municipal Wastewater
    7. 5.4 Types of Industrial Wastewaters
    8. 5.5 The Difference Between Industrial and Domestic Wastewaters
    9. 5.6 Why is it Necessary to Treat Wastewater?
    10. 5.7 Effects of Industrial Wastewater Discharges
    11. 5.7.1 Effects on Receiving Waters
    12. 5.7.2 Effects on Operation and Performance of Public Owned Treatment Works (POTW) and Industrial Wastewater Treatment System (IWTS)
    13. 5.7.3 Effects on the Collection System
    14. 5.8 Wastewater Characteristics
    15. 5.8.1 Classification of Wastewater Characteristics
    16. 5.9 Measurement of Organic Content of Wastewater
    17. 5.9.1 Estimating the Organic Content of Wastewater
    18. 5.9.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
    19. 5.9.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand
    20. 5.9.4 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Test
    21. 5.10 Relationship among Bod, Cod and TOC
    22. 5.11 Total Oxygen Demand (TOD)
    23. 5.12 Theoretical Oxygen Demand (Th.O.D)
    24. 5.13 Biological vs Physico–Chemical Analysis
    25. 5.14 Microbiological Characteristics
    26. Review Questions
  8. 6 Industrial Wastes: Origin, Characteristics and Treatment
    1. 6.1 General Classification of Industries
    2. 6.2 Classification of Industrial Wastewaters
    3. 6.2.1 Major Types of Wastewaters
    4. 6.2.2 Continuous and Intermittent Wastewater Discharges
    5. 6.2.3 Industrial Effluent Treatment
    6. 6.3 Discharge of Effluents into Various Environmental Sinks
    7. 6.3.1 Discharge Limits
    8. 6.3.2 The Environmental Sinks
    9. 6.3.3 Alternative Routes of Industrial Waste Treatment and Disposal
    10. 6.4 Tannery Industry
    11. 6.4.1 Introduction
    12. 6.4.2 Process Description
    13. 6.4.3 The Production Process
    14. 6.4.4 Wastewater Sources, Quantity and Characteristics
    15. 6.4.5 Treatment of Tannery Effluents
    16. 6.5 Dairy Industry
    17. 6.5.1 Introduction
    18. 6.5.2 The Indian Scenario
    19. 6.5.3 The Manufacturing Process
    20. 6.5.4 Sources and Characteristics of Wastewaters
    21. 6.5.5 Volume of Wastewaters
    22. 6.5.6 Treatment of Dairy Wastewaters
    23. 6.6 Textile Industry
    24. 6.6.1 Introduction
    25. 6.6.2 The Textile Process
    26. 6.6.3 Origin and Characteristics of the Textile Wastes
    27. 6.6.4 Treatment of Textile Wastewaters
    28. 6.7 Dyes Industry
    29. 6.7.1 The Dye
    30. 6.7.2 Manufacturing Process of Dyes
    31. 6.7.3 Sources and Characteristics of Wastewater
    32. 6.7.4 Other Wastes
    33. 6.7.5 Wastewater Treatment Methods
    34. 6.8 Dyeing and Printing Industry
    35. 6.8.1 Introduction
    36. 6.8.2 Textile Dyeing and Printing Process
    37. 6.8.3 Textile Dying Wastewater Treatment Processes
    38. 6.9 Recycling and Reuse of Industrial Wastewaters: The Need
    39. Review Questions
  9. 7 Air Pollution: Sources and Effects
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 The Atmosphere
    3. 7.2.1 Atmospheric Structure
    4. 7.3 Air Pollution: Definition
    5. 7.4 Sources of Air Pollution
    6. 7.4.1 Sources of Air Pollution
    7. 7.4.2 Classification of Air Pollutants
    8. 7.5 Criteria Pollutants
    9. 7.5.1 Particulate Matter (PM)
    10. 7.5.2 Carbon Monoxide
    11. 7.5.3 Sulfur Oxides
    12. 7.5.4 Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)
    13. 7.5.5 Ground Level Ozone (O3)
    14. 7.5.6 Lead (Pb)
    15. 7.6 Pollutants which are Carcinogenic
    16. 7.7 General Health Effects of Air Pollution
    17. 7.8 Units of Measurement for Air Pollutants
    18. 7.9 Air Pollution Episodes
    19. 7.9.1 What Leads to an Episodes?
    20. 7.10 Factors Affecting Air Pollution
    21. 7.11 National Ambient Air Quality Standards: (NAAQS)
    22. Review Questions
  10. 8 Air Pollution: Pollutant Control System
    1. 8.1 Particulate Emission Control
    2. 8.1.1 Classification of Particulate Control Equipments
    3. 8.1.2 Types of Particulate Collectors
    4. 8.1.3 Gravitational Settling Chamber
    5. 8.1.4 Mechanical Separators
    6. 8.1.5 Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
    7. 8.1.6 Fabric Filters
    8. 8.1.7 Wet Scrubbers
    9. 8.2 Control of Gaseous Pollutants from Stationary Sources
    10. 8.2.1 Methods of Controlling the Gaseous Pollutants
    11. 8.3 Summary of Control Techniques
    12. Review Questions
  11. 9 Solid Waste Management: Generation, Collection and Transportation
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Solid Waste: Terminology
    3. 9.3 Municipal Solid Waste
    4. 9.4 Solid Waste Management
    5. 9.4.1 Solid Waste Management Options
    6. 9.4.2 Functional Elements of Municipal Solid Waste Management
    7. 9.4.3 Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)
    8. 9.5 Quantity, Composition and Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste
    9. 9.5.1 Source and Classification of Solid Waste
    10. 9.5.2 Generation of Solid Waste
    11. 9.5.3 Composition and Characteristics
    12. 9.6 Collection and Transportation of Solid Waste
    13. 9.6.1 Collection of MSW
    14. 9.6.2 Street Sweeping
    15. 9.6.3 Secondary Storage
    16. 9.6.4 Transfer Station
    17. 9.6.5 Transportation of Solid Wastes
    18. Review Questions
  12. 10 Solid Waste Management: Processing, Treatment and Landfilling
    1. 10.1 Introduction: Processing and Treatment of Solid Waste
    2. 10.1.1 Material Recovery Facility (MRF)
    3. 10.1.2 Purposes of Processing
    4. 10.2 Disposal of Solid Waste: The Landfills
    5. 10.2.1 Landfilling Methods
    6. 10.2.2 Landfill Implementation
    7. 10.3 Leachate Control: The Liner Systems
    8. 10.3.1 Types of Liner Systems
    9. 10.3.2 Recommended Liner System for MSW in India
    10. 10.3.3 Leachate Collection System
    11. 10.4 Landfill Gas: Quality and Quantity
    12. 10.4.1 Estimating the Quantity of Landfill Gas
    13. 10.4.2 Landfills as a Source of Global Warming
    14. 10.5 Landfill Closure
    15. 10.5.1 Composition of Final Cover or Cap
    16. 10.5.2 Landfill Capacity
    17. 10.5.3 Use of Completed Landfills
    18. Review Questions
  13. 11 Noise: Sources and Control
    1. 11.1 Introduction: Sound and Noise
    2. 11.1.1 Sound: How Sound is Produced?
    3. 11.1.2 Noise
    4. 11.2 Definition of Noise
    5. 11.2.1 Noise Pollution
    6. 11.3 Characteristics of Sound
    7. 11.4 Noise Measurement Scale—Levels and the Decibels
    8. 11.4.1 The Decibel
    9. 11.4.2 The Levels
    10. 11.4.3 Loudness and SPL
    11. 11.4.4 Equivalent Noise Level (Leq)
    12. 11.5 The Weighting Networks
    13. 11.5.1 The A-weighted decibel, (dBA)
    14. 11.6 Combining Sound Pressure Levels
    15. 11.6.1 Addition of Two Noise Levels
    16. 11.6.2 Addition of Several Noise Levels
    17. 11.7 Sources of Noise
    18. 11.8 Effects of Noise on People
    19. 11.9 Control of Noise (Pollution)
    20. 11.9.1 Basic Concepts of Noise Control
    21. 11.9.2 Noise Management Strategy
    22. 11.9.3 The Computation of Noise
    23. 11.9.4 Types of Sound Sources: Effect of Doubling Distances
    24. 11.9.5 Statistical Distribution of Noise Levels—The LN Concept
    25. Review Questions
  14. 12 House Drainage
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Aims of the House Drainage System
    3. 12.3 The Requirements of a Well Designed System
    4. 12.4 House or Building Drainage System
    5. 12.4.1 The Characteristics of Good Drainage System
    6. 12.5 Terms and Definitions
    7. 12.6 Water and Air in Building Drainage
    8. 12.6.1 Water in Building Drainage
    9. 12.6.2 Air in Building Drainage
    10. 12.6.3 Pressure Measurement in the System
    11. 12.6.4 Pressure Transients
    12. 12.7 Pipes in House Drainage System
    13. 12.7.1 The Pipe Materials
    14. 12.8 The Drains
    15. 12.8.1 Additional Requirements of the Drains
    16. 12.9 Inspection Chambers (Ic) and Manholes (Mh)
    17. 12.9.1 Inspection Chamber
    18. 12.9.2 Manhole
    19. 12.10 Traps—The Siphons
    20. 12.10.1 Requirements of Siphons (Traps)
    21. 12.10.2 Placement of Siphons
    22. 12.10.3 Self-Siphonage and Induced Siphonage
    23. 12.10.4 Causes of Water Seal Loss
    24. 12.10.5 Classification of Traps
    25. 12.11 The Plumbing System for House Drainage
    26. 12.12 Ventilation
    27. 12.13 Principles of Planning and Design of House Drainage
    28. 12.13.1 The General Layout of the House Drainage System
    29. Review Questions
  15. 13 Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Eia : The Component Terms
    3. 13.2.1 EIA Definitions
    4. 13.3 Relationship Between Man’s Action, Environmental Effects and Impact
    5. 13.4 The Players in Eia Process
    6. 13.5 Attributes of EIA
    7. 13.5.1 The Roles of (why) EIA
    8. 13.5.2 The Purposes of EIA
    9. 13.5.3 Functions of EIA
    10. 13.5.4 Benefits of EIA
    11. 13.5.5 The Aims and Objectives of EIA
    12. 13.5.6 Limitations of EIA
    13. 13.6 Eia —As a Four Step Activity
    14. 13.7 Types of EIA
    15. 13.7.1 Criteria for Rapid or Comprehensive EIA
    16. 13.8 Eight Steps for Carrying Out the Eia Study
    17. 13.9 Environmental Audit
    18. 13.9.1 Background
    19. 13.9.2 Environmental Audit: The Private and Public Sector
    20. 13.9.3 Environmental Auditing (EA) and Environmental Management System (EMS)
    21. 13.9.4 Purposes of Environmental Audit
    22. 13.9.5 Limitations and Benefits of Environmental Audits
    23. 13.9.6 Planning an Environmental Audit
    24. 13.9.7 How to Conduct an Environmental Audit?
    25. 13.9.8 Following UP Environmental Audit
    26. 13.9.9 Problems Encountered During the Environmental Audit
    27. 13.9.10 The Environmental Audit Programmes in India: The Background
    28. 13.9.11 Environmental Audit Scheme—As Implemented in Gujarat
    29. 13.10 Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Auditing
    30. Review Questions
  16. 14 Water Treatment Systems
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Water Quality and Treatment
    3. 14.2.1 Sources of Water: The Quality Difference
    4. 14.2.2 The Water Quality Standards
    5. 14.2.3 The Objectives of Water Treatment
    6. 14.3 The Water Treatment Options and Selection Thereof
    7. 14.4 Sedimentation
    8. 14.4.1 Type of Suspended Solids
    9. 14.4.2 Types of Settling
    10. 14.4.3 Theory of Sedimentation
    11. 14.4.4 The Stocks’ Law
    12. 14.4.5 The Ideal Sedimentation Tank
    13. 14.4.6 Types of Sedimentation Tanks
    14. 14.4.7 Design of Sedimentation Tanks
    15. 14.4.8 Design Equations
    16. 14.5 Coagulation and Rapid Mixing
    17. 14.5.1 What are Colloids?
    18. 14.5.2 Types of Colloids
    19. 14.5.3 Destabilisation of Colloids
    20. 14.5.4 Mechanisms of Coagulation
    21. 14.5.5 Reactions Involved
    22. 14.5.6 Common Coagulants
    23. 14.5.7 Mixing of Coagulants
    24. 14.6 Flocculation
    25. 14.6.1 Definition of Flocculation
    26. 14.6.2 Mechanisms of Flocculation
    27. 14.6.3 Factors Affecting Flocculation
    28. 14.6.4 Velocity Gradient
    29. 14.6.5 Dimensionless Product G.t
    30. 14.6.6 Design Criteria
    31. 14.7 Filtration
    32. 14.7.1 The Filtration Process
    33. 14.7.2 Hydraulics of Filtration
    34. 14.7.3 Classification and Types of Rapid Sand Filter
    35. 14.7.4 The Rapid Sand Filter Box and Operation
    36. 14.7.5 Filter Appurtenances
    37. 14.7.6 Important Terms and Definitions
    38. 14.7.7 Design Criteria for RSF
    39. 14.8 Disinfection
    40. 14.8.1 Objectives of Disinfection
    41. 14.8.2 Theory of Disinfection
    42. 14.8.3 The Chemical Disinfectants
    43. 14.8.4 Chlorination
    44. 14.9 Design of 20 MLD Water Treatment Plant
    45. 14.10 Solved Numerical Problems
    46. Review Questions
  17. Bibliography
  18. Index