6.4. Characterization of magnetic-oxide thin films

Characterization of magnetic-oxide thin films includes a range of techniques. The most conventional of these build off of typical measurements applied to bulk materials—including magnetometry (in the form of vibrating sample (VSM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers) and magnetotransport. For magnetometry, the only special consideration that needs to be taken is the relative volume of the magnetic film material as compared to that of the substrate. Because the vastly different volume between a film (∼107–106 cm3) and substrate (∼102 cm3), even a strongly magnetic thin film can be swamped out by the diamagnetic background of the much larger substrate. Additionally, ...

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