Most computer instructions operate on data; however, there are some that do not. Computer manufacturers regularly group instructions into the following categories: data movement, arithmetic, Boolean, bit manipulation (shift and rotate), I/O, transfer of control, and special-purpose.

We discuss each of these categories in the following sections.

5.3.1   Data Movement

Data movement instructions are the most frequently used instructions. Data is moved from memory into registers, from registers to registers, and from registers to memory, and many machines provide different instructions depending on the source and destination. For example, there may be a MOVER instruction that always requires two register operands, whereas ...

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