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Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, Dawn P. Flanagan

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SixSelecting and Tailoring Interventions for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

Diane Pedrotty Bryant

Kathleen Hughes Pfannenstiel

Brian R. Bryant

Jessica Hunt

Mikyung Shin

According to the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP, 2008), the U.S. workforce must be capable of understanding and applying quantitative concepts to remain competitive in a global economy. Yet, findings from international studies (e.g., Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMSS]; Gonzales et al., 2004; Program for International Student Assessment [PISA]; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009) show that students from the United States continue to be outperformed on mathematics tests by their peers in many developed countries. Additionally, findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP; National Center for Education Statistics, 2011) indicate a persistent problem of underachievement (i.e., scoring below the basic level) for students with mathematics difficulties (MD) and for students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD).

Underachievement suggests gaps in understanding fundamental content. Unfortunately, lacking a solid mathematics foundation impedes successful performance in higher-level mathematics courses, such as algebra, and contributes to lifelong difficulties in employment and meeting the demands of daily living (Aunola, Leskinen, Lerkkanen, & Nurmi, 2004; Geary, 2011; NMAP, 2008). The purpose of this chapter is to provide ...

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