Ethnic Marketing

Book Description

Together with the development of transformative technologies that epitomize globalization, the ongoing movements of people across borders and other socio-economic pressures are creating a fast-changing business environment that is difficult for business to understand, let alone control. Dominant social expectations that immigrants should seek to adopt an assimilationist socialization path towards the host country’s mainstream are contradicted by minority ethnic group resilience. There is no evidence that these groups naturally disappear within the cultural and behavioural contexts of their adopted countries. Since ethnic minority consumers cannot be expected to assimilate, then they maintain some significant degree of unique ethnicity related consumer characteristics that convert into threats and opportunities for business. The inherent socialisation process also provides opportunities for ethnic entrepreneurship and for proliferation of ethnic minority business.

Following from the extensive examination of scholarly perspectives of ethnic marketing theory, there is an acknowledged and marked divide between theoretical exhortations and what is done in practice, a relative oversight of the implications of mixed embedded markets, and a propinquity to overlook the crucial role played by ethnic entrepreneurship and ethnic networks. Opportunity valuations are difficult to enact due to a lack of intelligence about ethnic markets. Variable sentiment about the future of ethnic marketing links to different predictions on how the drivers of globalization will impact on the acculturation paths of ethnic minorities.

Keeping a focus on the ethnic group as the unit of analysis, combining ethnic marketing and ethnic entrepreneurship theories provides intelligence about contemporary ethnic marketing and practice perspectives. The ultimate objective is to reduce the theory-practice divide through the development of a collaborative framework between business and scholars that converts into theory-in-use.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Series Page
  4. Title
  5. Copyright
  6. Dedication
  7. Contents
  8. List of Tables
  9. List of Figures
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. Foreword
  12. 1 Issues in Ethnic Marketing Theory, Practice and Entrepreneurship
    1. Conceptual Ambiguity
    2. What Is Ethnic Marketing? Definitional Differences
    3. Ethnic Marketing Issues
    4. Other Ethnic Marketing Issues Identified by Researchers
    5. Causes of a Gap and Approaches to Reconciliation
    6. On the Need for Pragmatism or Theory-in-Use
    7. Pragmatism in Ethnic Marketing Theory
    8. Summary
    9. References
  13. 2 Ethnicity, Ethnic Groups and Ethnic Identity
    1. The Meaning and Relevance of Ethnicity
    2. Basis for Defining Ethnicity
    3. We Are All Ethnic—Or Are We?
    4. Meaning and Centrality of Ethnic Groups
    5. The Interlinking of Ethnic Identity With the Ethnic Group
    6. Development of Ethnic Identity
    7. Ethnic Identity, Consumer Behaviour and the Ethnic Group
    8. Summary
    9. References
  14. 3 Acculturation, the Minority Ethnic Group and Ethnic Consumer Behaviour
    1. What Is Acculturation?
    2. Choice of Acculturation Path
    3. Inter-Generational Differences
    4. Acculturation and Ethnic Identity
    5. Acculturation and Consumer Behaviour
    6. Acculturation and Ethnic Group Dynamics
    7. Summary
    8. References
  15. 4 Rationale for Ethnic Marketing Focus on Aggregates of Minority Ethnic Groups
    1. General Requirements for Effective Market Segmentation
    2. Panethnicity
    3. Homophily and Ethnic Group Formation
    4. Homophily and the Choice of Suppliers to the Ethnic Community
    5. An EMIC Approach to Creating Panethnic Segments
    6. A Framework for Assessing Panethnic Segments
    7. Summary
    8. References
  16. 5 Perspectives on Ethnic Loyalty
    1. Interactions Between Ethnic Consumers, Groups and Businesses
    2. Loyalty Drivers
    3. Cultural Affinity/Shared Ethnicity and Switching Costs
    4. Switch Motivations
    5. Summary
    6. References
  17. 6 Articulating Ethnic Marketing With Ethnic Entrepreneurship
    1. From Immigrant to Ethnic Minority Consumer
    2. From Ethnic Minority Consumer to Ethnic Entrepreneur
    3. Socialization and Entrepreneurship
    4. Recognition of Ethnic Minority Business by Ethnic Communities
    5. From Ethnic Marketing to Marketing by Ethnic Minority Businesses
    6. References
  18. 7 Understanding Ethnic Entrepreneurship
    1. Conceptualizing Ethnic Entrepreneurship
    2. Drivers and Impediments in the Creation of Ethnic Minority Business
    3. Ethnic Minority Business’ Creation and Consolidation
    4. Business Opportunity Structures
    5. Group Characteristics
    6. Ethnic Strategies and the Typical Ethnic Minority Business
    7. Ethnic Groups as Natural Incubators for Ethnic Businesses
    8. Conclusion
    9. References
  19. 8 Ethnic Minority Business Growth, Demise and Failure
    1. Interactive Model
    2. Social Embeddedness Theory
    3. One Model Doesn’t Fit All
    4. Mixed Embeddedness Theory
    5. Mixed Embeddedness: The Norm and a Potential Barrier to Growth
    6. Considering Growth Capabilities and the Role of the Co-Ethnic Minority Group
    7. Ethnic Minority Business and the Acculturation Process
    8. Growth and Demise
    9. Conclusion
    10. References
  20. 9 Ethnic Networks and the Adoption of Relational Strategies
    1. Preferred Suppliers, Ethnic Networks and Minority Ethnic Markets
    2. Ethnic Networks as Relational Drivers
    3. Networks Imply Relational Imperatives
    4. Decision to Adopt a Relational Marketing Approach
    5. Relationship Between Consumers and Preferred Suppliers
    6. Relationships, Networks and Competitive Advantage
    7. Implications for Consumer Groups Not Bound by Ethnicity
    8. Conclusion
    9. References
  21. 10 Ethnic Entrepreneurship and the Marketing Mix
    1. Theory, Practice, Strategy and the Segmentation Dilemma
    2. A View of the Gap Between Theory and Practice
    3. Business Opportunities and Ethnic Minority Business
    4. Objectives, Strategies and Tactics
    5. Ethnic Minority Business Objectives, Strategies and Tactics
    6. The Outgrowth Threshold
    7. Ethnic Minority Business Customer Portfolio
    8. Why Adopt an Ethnic-Sensitive Relational Marketing Strategy?
    9. Relational Embedding of Ethnic-Sensitive Tactical Activities
    10. Summary
    11. References
    12. Vignette: An Alternative View of Ethnic Minority Business
  22. 11 Product, Price, Place, Physical Evidence and Process
    1. The Product Element: Considering Tangibility and Perceived Risk
    2. Approach to the Discussion of the Tactical Ethnic Marketing Mix
    3. References
  23. 12 Promotion and Personalization
    1. The Promotional Element
    2. Serving Anyone That Comes Through the Door
    3. Marketing Communications and Minority Co-Ethnic Groups
    4. The Challenges of a Dynamic Environment
    5. Understanding Communication as Information Processing Activity
    6. The Value Proposition
    7. Typical Tactical Activities
    8. Effective Ethnic Communication—More Than Just Language
    9. Intra-Ethnic Group Segmentation: Communicating in “Portinhol”
    10. Communicating to Reduce Perceived Risk
    11. Relational Communications for Ethnic Loyalty
    12. The Personalization Element
    13. Simultaneity/Inseparability as a Vehicle for Responsiveness and Personalization
    14. Conclusion
    15. References
  24. 13 People, Ethics and Social Responsibility
    1. Ethnocentrism Within National Boundaries
    2. Dealing With Cultural Distance
    3. Typical Tactical Activities Deployed by Ethnic Minority Businesses
    4. The Choice of People to Employ
    5. Ethnic Sensitivity Skills Training
    6. People Tactics for Competitive Advantage
    7. Ethnic Minority Business: Ethics and Social Responsibility
    8. Disadvantage, Vulnerability and Poor Business Practices
    9. Exposure to ICT-Based Structural Change
    10. Flexibility and Evolutionary Dynamism
    11. Summary
    12. References
  25. 14 Environmental Forces, Ethnic Marketing and Ethnic Entrepreneurship
    1. The Political Environment
    2. Ethnicity, Migration and the Future of Ethnic Marketing
    3. Implications From Differences in Immigration Policies and Acculturation
    4. Longstanding Countries of Immigration
    5. Australian Migration Policy Sketch
    6. Canada, New Zealand and the USA
    7. Past Major Emigration Countries
    8. The Potential for Ethnic Marketing in Other Environments
    9. Conclusion
    10. References
  26. Index

Product Information

  • Title: Ethnic Marketing
  • Author(s): Guilherme D. Pires, John Stanton
  • Release date: December 2018
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781315454870