Chapter 26


Audrey Dobbins,    University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany


Consumers are at the heart of the energy system and are not only encouraged, but also required to take an active role in the European Union’s transition towards a secure and sustainable low-carbon energy system. Options for the roles consumers can play as part of this transition as well as the overall structure of this section are introduced in this chapter.


Consumers; self-consumption; district heating; vulnerable consumers; households; direct current networks; energy transition

According to the Energy Union vision (refer to Section 6.1), European households and businesses (the consumers of energy) are at the heart of the energy system. Households ...

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