The authors understand and realize that wide differences exist in the mathematical background of readers of this book. Some of you might have taken various courses in algebra, calculus, and matrix algebra, while others might not have taken any mathematics courses in a long period of time. Because the emphasis in this book is on statistical concepts and the interpretation of spreadsheet and statistical calculator results, no prerequisite beyond elementary algebra is needed. To assess your arithmetic and algebraic skills, answer the following questions and then read the review that follows.

Fill in the correct answer.

**1.**

**2.** (0.4)^{2} =

**3.**

**4.**

**5.**

**6.** 1 – (–0.3) =

**7.** 4 × 0.2 ...

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