6.4. Brief Introduction to General Shell Elements

The X-FEM formatting of two kinds of shell elements is discussed: Belytschko–Lin–Tsay and continuum-based (CB) shell elements. The former shell element was developed by Belytschko et al. in 2004, when they first established the shell element formula of X-FEM. The latter X-FEM CB shell element was developed by Zhuang and Cheng in 2011 based on the CB shell format. Also, the computational formula of the stress intensity factor is introduced for 3D cracks. In the following subsections, the computational formulae of the two kinds of shell element is described.

6.4.1. Belytschko–Lin–Tsay Shell Element

The Belytschko–Lin–Tsay shell element is a commonly used element in engineering computations, and has ...

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